2 Chapter 2 Timeline 4-5 Million Years Ago 2.6 Million Years Ago Early humanlike creatures called Australopithecus developed in AfricaHominids make the first stone toolsBy this time hominids live all across EuropeThe first modern humans appear in AfricaHumans occupy all of the continents except AntarcticaIce Ages end and people begin to develop agriculture
3 Begin About 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago Chapter 2 TimelinePoleolithic EraMesolithic EraNeolithic EraLucy DiscoveredUntil 10,000 Years Ago10,000 to 5,000 Years AgoBegin About 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago195919741994The first part of the Old Stone Age when people began to make toolsThe Middle Stone Age when people began making more complex tools and sheltersThe New Stone Age when people learned to make fire and grow crops also called the Agriculture RevolutionMary Leakey found bones in East Africa belonging to a hominid that was more than 1.5million years oldDonald Johanson found the bones of a 3 million year old hominid he named Lucy: Proved Hominids walked uprightTom White found the remains of a hominid that lived as long as 4.4 million years ago
4 Section 1: The First People The Big IdeaPrehistoric people learned to adapt to their environment, to make simple tools, to use fire, and to use language.Main IdeasScientists study the remains of early humans to learn about prehistory.Hominids and early humans first appeared in East Africa millions of years ago.Stone Age tools grew more complex as time passed.Hunter-gatherer societies developed language, art, and religion.
5 Main Idea 1: Scientists study the remains of early humans to learn about prehistory. To study prehistory, the time before writing, historians rely on the work of archaeologists and anthropologists.Key Hominid Finds:Mary and Louis Leakey found bones of early ancestors of humans, called hominids, in East Africa.“Lucy” was found by Donald Johanson. Tests showed that she lived more than 3 million years ago and walked on two legs.Tim White found even older remains from as long as 4.4 million years ago.
7 Archeologist Mary Leakey Mary Leakey found bones in east Africa that were more than 1.5 million years old. They belonged to an early hominid, an early ancestor of humans.This discovery showed early humans first appeared in Africa.
9 Main Idea 2: Hominids and early humans first appeared in East Africa millions of years ago. Groups of hominids appeared about 3 million years ago.A group of hominids called Homo erectus, or upright man, appeared in Africa about 1.5 million years ago.Many scientists think that modern humans appeared about 200,000 years ago in Africa.
11 Hominids and Early Humans Homo habilis“handy man”Became more like humans over timeFound in 1960s by Louis LeakeyClosely related to humansHomo erectus“upright man”Scientists believe they walked completely upright, like modern people.Scientists also believe they knew how to control fire.Homo sapiens“wise man”Everyone alive today belongs to this group.
12 Main Idea 3: Stone Age tools grew more complex as time passed. The first humans and their ancestors lived during the Stone Age.The first part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic Era, during which people used stone tools.A tool is a handheld object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a task.
13 Many great mammals such as wooly mammoths, wooly rhinoceros, and cave lions inhabited places like Siberia during the Pleistocene.
14 Paleoindians hunting a glyptodon Paleoindians hunting a glyptodon. Glyptodons were hunted to extinction within two millennia after humans' arrival to South America.
15 First Tools Earliest tools found in East Africa About 2.6 million years oldEach stone was hit with another to create a sharp edge.One unsharpened side could be used as a handle.Scientists think these first tools were used mostly to cut and grind food.Tools called choppers were used about million years ago.
16 Later Tools Improved tools were made out of flint. People learned how to attach wooden handles to tools.Because they no longer had to stand next to the animals they were hunting, people were able to kill larger animals from a distance.Later people developed the hand ax and learned to attached wooden handles to tools.
18 Old Stone Age Shelters and Clothing At first early people took shelter in caves. To keep warm they learned to sew animal skins together. Then the first humans made pit houses in the ground with roofs of branches and leaves. Later people made shelters framed from mammoth bones and covered them with animal skins.
19 Early humans formed societies. They were hunter-gatherers. Main Idea 4: Hunter-gatherer societies developed language, art, and religion.Early humans formed societies.They were hunter-gatherers.The most important development of early Stone Age culture was language.
21 Hunter-gatherer Societies A society is a community of people who share a common culture.Anthropologists believe that early humans lived in small groups.Lived in cavesHunter-gatherers: hunted animals and gathered plants and seeds to survive.Developed cultures with language, religion, and artAllowed more relationships to formEasier to huntAllowed food distribution
22 Hunter-gather Achievements Learned how to make toolsLearned to use fireLearned how to create art
24 Section 2: Early Human Migration The Big IdeaAs people migrated around the world, they learned to adapt to new environmentsMain IdeasPeople moved out of Africa as the earth’s climates changed.People adapted to new environments by making clothing and new types of tools.
25 Ice ages caused people to migrate, or move, to new places. Main Idea 1: People moved out of Africa as the earth’s climates changed.Ice ages caused people to migrate, or move, to new places.Early people migrated around the world. Complete global migration took hundreds of thousands of years.
26 Effects of the Ice Age on Humans Early humans were forced to move to new environments due to the Ice Age.
27 The Ice AgesAbout 1.6 million years ago, many places around the world began to experience long periods of freezing weather, called the ice ages.The ice ages ended about 10,000 years ago.Huge sheets of ice covered much of the earth’s land.Many areas that are now underwater were then dry land. A land bridge, or strip of land connecting two continents, probably connected Asia and North America.
28 Land bridges allowed Stone Age peoples to migrate around the world.
29 Settling New LandsEarly hominids migrated from Africa to Asia about 2 million years ago.They eventually spread to India, China, Southeast Asia, and Europe.Humans began to migrate to South Asia around 100,000 years ago.From South Asia, they moved to Europe, North Asia, and then North America.By 9000 BC, humans lived on all continents except Antarctica.
31 Main Idea 2: People adapted to new environments by making clothing and new types of tools. Early people had to adapt to new environments.They learned how to sew animal skins together for clothing.They found new shelters, such as pit houses and caves. Then, created structures made out of animal skins, wood, stone, and bones.They had to create new tools and technologies.New tools defined the Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age).Invented hooks, fishing spears, and the bow and arrowNew technologies such as canoes and pottery
32 Life in the Mesolithic Era People made advances that allowed them to adapt to new environments.
33 Mesolithic EraMigration caused people to adapt to new areas by sewing animal skins together for clothing. They also needed shelters to survive. They began to make shelters called pit houses. They were pits in the ground with roofs made of branches and leaves. Later they built structures with wood roofs and mammoth bones. People who lived near water invented hooks and fishing spears. Other groups invented the bow and arrow. People invented canoes to travel. The began to make pottery and domesticate animals.
35 Section 3: Beginnings of Agriculture The Big IdeaThe development of agriculture brought great changes to human society.Main IdeasThe first farmers learned to grow plants and raise animals in the Stone Age.Farming changed societies and the way people lived.
37 Farmers also began learning how to use animals for their own benefit. Main Idea 1: The first farmers learned to grow plants and raise animals in the Stone Age.After the Middle Stone Age came a period of time that scientists call the Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age.People learned how to make plants more useful through a process called domestication.Farmers also began learning how to use animals for their own benefit.
38 Neolithic RevolutionThe Neolithic Revolution (Agriculture Revolution) was the shift from food gathering to food producing.
39 New Stone Age Began as early as 10,000 years ago, in Southwest Asia People learned how to polish stones, make fire, and produce food.Ended 5,000 years ago in Egypt and Southwest Asia, when toolmakers began using metalPeople began using seeds to grow crops.
40 DomesticationProcess of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humansPeople learned they could plant seeds and grow their own crops.People learned to plant the biggest and sweetest crops for better yields.The domestication of plants led to the development of agriculture, or farming.
41 Domestication of Plants Domestication involves changing the plants to make them more useful to humans.
42 AnimalsHunters didn’t need to follow wild animals once they learned how to keep and use animals.Sheep and goats were used for milk, food, and wool.Larger animals were used to help with farming.Learning to use animals to help with farming increased people’s chances of surviving.
43 Domestication of Plants and Animals People in the New Stone Age had a different relationship to plants and animals due primarily to climatic changes and human innovations.
45 MegalithsMegaliths were huge stone monuments used as sites for religious gatherings.
46 Religion of Early People Early people based their religion on nature and their environment.
47 Main Idea 2: Farming changed societies and the way people lived. More certain survivalPeople could focus on activities other than finding food.Domestication of plants and animals led to the use of fibers to make clothes.DomesticationDomestication led to the need to stay in one place. Farming communities grew into towns.Permanent settlements
48 The Agriculture Revolution EffectsResultsPeople began to guild permanent settlements, raise crops, and domesticate animalsFood supplies became more reliable, other jobs were created, civilizations were created