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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-1 Chapter 6 Groups and Teams.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-1 Chapter 6 Groups and Teams."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-1 Chapter 6 Groups and Teams

2 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-2 Learning Objectives Define groups and teams Understand the elements of group structure Know two models of group development Discuss group processes including decision making and social loafing

3 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-3 Learning Objectives (cont.) Explain the differences between groups and teams Appreciate the influences of differences in group and team composition on organizational behavior Understand obstacles to effective work team functioning and ways to overcome them Identify the characteristics of virtual teams Know how groups function in different cultures

4 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-4 Group A plurality of individuals who are in contact with one another, who take one another into account, and who are aware of some significant commonality

5 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-5 Elements of Group Structure Rules Specify expected behavior Norms Informal unstated rules of behavior Roles Sets of norms that define behavior appropriate for and expected of various positions within a group

6 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-6 Elements of Group Structure Status Rank of the role in the hierarchy of the group Leaders Task leader - focuses the group on goal achievement Socio-emotional leader - focuses on the emotional and social aspects of a group

7 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-7 Elements of Group Structure Followers Group members who do not have leadership roles Formal Groups Accomplish a particular goal or serve a specific purpose Informal Groups Evolve naturally in organizations, often without the awareness or endorsement of management

8 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-8 Group Development The Five-Stage Model Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning The Punctuated Equilibrium Model

9 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-9 Group Processes Communication Group Culture Decision Making Individual Vs. Group “Groupthink” Participation and Social Loafing

10 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-10 Team A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable

11 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-11 How Teams Differ from Groups Shared Leadership Accountability Purpose Work Products Communication Effectiveness Work Style

12 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-12 Types of Groups Homogeneous Members have similar backgrounds Token All members except one have similar backgrounds

13 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-13 Types of Groups Bicultural Two or more members represent each of two distinct cultures Multicultural Members have three or more ethnic backgrounds

14 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Diversity AdvantagesDisadvantages Diversity Permits Increased Creativity Wide range of perspectives More and better ideas Less “groupthink” Diversity Forces Enhanced Concentration to Understand Others’ Ideas Perspectives Meanings Arguments Diversity Causes Lack of Cohesion Mistrust Lower interpersonal attractiveness Stereotyping More within-culture conversations Miscommunication Slower speech: Non-native speakers Less accurate communication Stress More counterproductive behavior Less agreement on content Tension

15 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Diversity (cont.) AdvantagesDisadvantages Increased Creativity Can Lead to Better problem definitions More alternatives Better solutions Better decisions Groups Can Become More effective More productive Lack of Cohesion Causes Inability to Validate ideas and people Agree when agreement is needed Gain consensus on decisions Take concerted action Groups Can Become Less efficient Less effective Less productive

16 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-16 Teams at Work Problems creating single culture teams Transnational teams Multiple cultures can contribute to team development and enhance goal attainment

17 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-17 Teams at Work Creation of successful transnational and global teams more complex than adjusting to or benefiting from the cultural diversity of team members Virtual teams More complex to manage Can be as effective as teams with face-to-face interaction

18 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-18 Convergence or Divergence? Trend toward using group-oriented management techniques in individualistic societies Introduction of market- based principles in collective societies leading to more individualism Continuing tensions among cultures Multiculturalism threatens dominant groups Some societies remain homogeneous

19 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-19 Implications for Managers Managing Groups Give organizational objectives precedence over multicultural considerations Emphasize clear vision/superordinate goal Create equal power among group members Avoid ethnocentrism Learn how to diagnose group behavior in other cultures

20 © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6-20 Implications for Managers New uses of groups and teams Groups and teams may replace traditional organizational structures Use of teams may increase in cross- cultural negotiations

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