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By: Mr. Kauffman & Mr. Lowe

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1 By: Mr. Kauffman & Mr. Lowe
Biochemistry By: Mr. Kauffman & Mr. Lowe

2 Outline Organic Compounds Cell Parts Review Biochemical Reactions
Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Fermentation Cellular Transport Diffusion Osmosis Endocytosis Exocytosis 5 Functions Necessary for Life

3 Organic Compounds All cells are made up of the same basic elements
Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Phosphorus (P) Sulfur (S) Those elements combine together to form different molecules Example: Hydrogen + Oxygen = Water

4 Percentage in living things
Organic Compounds Element Name Percentage in living things Oxygen 65.0 % Carbon 18.5 % Hydrogen 9.6 % Nitrogen 3.3 % Phosphorus 1.0 % Sulfur

5 Organic Compounds 4 Important Molecules for Life Functions
Carbohydrates (Carbs) Function – provides the cell with energy (sugars) Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Example – Glucose, Sucrose, Fructose

6 Organic Compounds 4 Important Molecules for Life Functions
2. Lipids (Fats) Function – storage of large amounts of energy for long term use (insulation) Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus Example – Fats and Oils

7 Organic Compounds 4 Important Molecules for Life Functions 3. Proteins
Function – makes up organs and muscles, growth, and repair Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur Example – Red meats, Chicken, Fish, Eggs

8 Organic Compounds 4 Important Molecules for Life Functions
4. Nucleic Acids Function – instructions for maintenance, growth, and reproduction of cell Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus Example – DNA

9 Cell Parts Review Nucleus – control center of the cell
Cell membrane – protective outer layer found in all cells Cell wall – protective outer layer found only in plant cells Mitochondria – produces energy for cells by breaking down food molecules Chloroplast – produces energy for plant cells by converting sunlight into sugar

10 Biochemical Reactions
Biochemical Reactions: reactions that occur inside the cells of living things in order to produce energy necessary for life All cells require energy to carry out the functions necessary for life The energy that all cells use is in the form of sugars

11 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis: how plant cells are able to convert sunlight into sugar (energy source) Happens only in plant cells Occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells Contain chlorophyll (green pigment – coloring)

12 Photosynthesis Sunlight + Water + Carbon Dioxide = Sugar and Oxygen
Plants use some of the energy and store the rest as sugar Sugar stored in the plant is food for the animals that eat plants Oxygen produced is released into the air

13 Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration: process by which cells convert sugars into chemical energy Happens in both plant and animal cells Occurs in the mitochondria of plant and animal cells

14 Cellular Respiration Sugar + Oxygen = Chemical Energy + Water + Carbon Dioxide Chemical energy produced is used to complete other cell functions Growth, repair, cell division, transportation of materials, etc… Chemical energy not used for cellular functions is released as heat Carbon dioxide produced is released by the cell and exhaled into the air

15 Fermentation Fermentation: energy production that occurs in cells without oxygen An inefficient way to produce energy Produces only a small amount of energy Produces lactic acid (the burning you feel in muscles when running/exercising)

16 Cellular Transport The human body needs to transport materials to the correct cells around the body Cells need to be able to move these materials into and out of the cell

17 Circulatory System Circulatory System: organ system responsible for transporting materials to various cells around the body Consists of the heart, veins, and arteries Delivers oxygen and nutrients (food) to the cells for energy production Delivers carbon dioxide to cells in the lungs to be released during exhaling

18 Circulatory System

19 Cellular Transport Cellular Transport: the movement of materials (water or nutrients) across the cell membrane either into or out of the cell The cell membrane is selectively permeable This means that certain materials are allowed to pass through the cell membrane while other materials are not

20 Cellular Transport Some cellular transport requires energy (active transport) and some does not require energy (passive transport) 4 basic types of cellular transport Diffusion (passive) Osmosis (passive) Endocytosis (active) Exocytosis (active)

21 Diffusion Diffusion: random movement of molecules across a cell membrane from an area of a higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

22 Diffusion Movement of molecules continues until the concentration of molecules is equal on each side of the cell membrane This is known as equilibrium Oxygen enters the cell via diffusion Carbon dioxide leaves the cell via diffusion

23 Osmosis Osmosis: the diffusion of water across the cell membrane
Continues until equilibrium is reached Concentration of water inside of the cell membrane is equal to the concentration of water outside of the cell membrane

24 Endocytosis Endocytosis: process by which cells absorb materials by surrounding them with their cell membrane Happens with materials that are too large to pass through the cell membrane Outside of cell Inside of cell

25 Exocytosis Exocytosis: process by which cells release materials too large to normally pass through the cell membrane Outside of cell Inside of cell

26 5 Functions Necessary for Life
Movement/locomotion Ability to respond to environment Stimulus and response Cat hears the sound of the can opener (stimulus) and comes running for food (response) Use energy All cellular functions require energy Growth and development Grow in size Develop new characteristics over their lives (ability to walk) Ability to reproduce Replace individuals who die

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