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Josef Schmied Chair English Language & Linguistics Chemnitz University of Technology

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Presentation on theme: "Josef Schmied Chair English Language & Linguistics Chemnitz University of Technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Josef Schmied Chair English Language & Linguistics Chemnitz University of Technology Analysing Academic English: new resources and research questions Brno 1/12/05

2 1. The web as a dictionary : from www searching to comparing 0. search machines (esp. Google) allow www comparisons of language usage indicate occurrence and frequency indicate occurrence and frequency 1. Webcorp (Liverpool) qualitative / quotations KWIC besides URL KWIC besides URL esp. specific search in Google/Altavista (e.g..co.uk vs.ac.uk) esp. specific search in Google/Altavista (e.g..co.uk vs.ac.uk) domain-, text-specific (newspaper, etc.) 2. WebPhraseCount (Chemnitz) quantitative differences = compare concurrences of phrases on top level domains limitations: Google: 1000 queries per day Google: 1000 queries per day internal: 100 quotations/snippets/results per search internal: 100 quotations/snippets/results per searchproblems: non-English websites (+the) non-English websites (+the) WWW dictionary Schmied 2

3 1.2. The web as a dictionary? limitations The web as a dictionary? limitations 1. the web is not a reflection of reality the web is not a corpus - but a text collection machine-readable but not stratified!! 2. lack of oral language but: possibly from more oral parts of the internet like s and chats 3. general characteristic of the web:public! even private homepages are exhibitionistic - and culture-specific WWW dictionary Schmied 3

4 2. multiSearch: a EU translation corpus in German, English, French, Spanish,... EP problems vs. surplus value ? 2.1. for translation studies + real equivalents (not only comparable texts) for contrastive linguistics - not natural - not natural as a discovery procedure multiSearch Schmied 4

5 have etc. in English lassen/läßt, etc. in German faire/faisait, etc. in French multiSearch Schmied 5

6 2.2. Example: causatives have s.o. do s.th. lassen/läßt, etc. in German faire/faisait, etc. in French English ha* +German la* +French fai* provides some interesting prototypical cases provides some interesting prototypical cases multiSearch Schmied 6

7 ep : 2651 English: I have also noted that my dear friend, Mr Dell ' Alba, has had his grumbles printed as an appendix to my opinion. German: Ich habe auch zur Kenntnis genommen, daß mein spezieller Freund aus dem Parlament, Herr Dell ' Alba, seine Kritik als Anlage zu meiner Stellungnahme hat drucken lassen. French: J'ai également noté que mon cher ami député M. Dell'Alba avait fait imprimer ses rouspétances en annexe à mes remarques. multiSearch Schmied 7

8 ep : 39 English: Just eight days earlier, the European Parliament had adopted a resolution in the topical and urgent debate which runs to about three pages in length. German: Das Europäische Parlament hatte genau acht Tage vorher eine Entschließung in der Dringlichkeitsdebatte verabschiedet, die ungefähr drei Seiten lang ist. French: Huit jours auparavant, le Parlement européen avait adopté une résolution au cours du débat d'actualité, une résolution qui doit faire environ trois pages. Spanish: Exactamente ocho días antes, el Parlamento Europeo aprobó una resolución en el debate de urgencia que abarca aproximadamente tres páginas. multiSearch Schmied 8

9 3. English for Academic Purposes 3.1. types expert to expert vs. layman to layman expert to expert vs. expert to layman 3.2. data? 3.3. differences? EAP Schmied 9

10 3. English for Academic Purposes data? expert to expert vs. layman to layman BNC expert to expert vs. expert to layman Public. of Am. Society of the Learned Sciences vs. New Scientist? wikipedia EAP Schmied 10

11 differences? technical vocab academic wordlist hedges = types? EAP Schmied 11

12 The ability of topically The ability of topically applied pTT to induce protective physiologic responses that normally_AV0_M_8 applied pTT to induce protective physiologic responses that normally_AV0_M_8 result from DNA damage suggests_VV_M_8 a previously undescribed means of result from DNA damage suggests_VV_M_8 a previously undescribed means of reducing skin cancer in high-risk individuals. reducing skin cancer in high-risk individuals. Skin cancer accounts for at least_AJS_M_9 40% of all human malignancies, Skin cancer accounts for at least_AJS_M_9 40% of all human malignancies, #1,000,000 cases annually in the U.S. (1, 2). Incidence #1,000,000 cases annually in the U.S. (1, 2). Incidence is clearly_AV0_M_9 linked to UV exposure and increases exponentially is clearly_AV0_M_9 linked to UV exposure and increases exponentially with age (1, 3). Skin cancer risk is greatly_AV0_M_8 increased in the with age (1, 3). Skin cancer risk is greatly_AV0_M_8 increased in the rare disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), because of mutation rare disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), because of mutation in one of several DNA repair enzymes responsible for nucleotide in one of several DNA repair enzymes responsible for nucleotide excision repair (NER) (4–6). Development of a hairless mouse excision repair (NER) (4–6). Development of a hairless mouse model (7, 8) and more recently hairless XP gene knockout mice model (7, 8) and more recently hairless XP gene knockout mice that mimic the human cancer susceptibility (4) has greatly_AV0_M_8 that mimic the human cancer susceptibility (4) has greatly_AV0_M_8 facilitated studies of photocarcinogenesis. In particular, lowdose facilitated studies of photocarcinogenesis. In particular, lowdose daily UV irradiation of XP group C (Xpc)#/# mice leads to daily UV irradiation of XP group C (Xpc)#/# mice leads to the development of skin cancer with a short latency time (80–100 the development of skin cancer with a short latency time (80–100 days) and 100% prevalence, and partially_AV0_M_6 repair deficient Xpc#/# days) and 100% prevalence, and partially_AV0_M_6 repair deficient Xpc#/# mice are also more prone to UV-induced skin cancer than their mice are also more prone to UV-induced skin cancer than their WT counterparts (9). WT counterparts (9). EAP Schmied 12

13 English may = German vielleicht = French ? English: Mr President, ladies and gentlemen, Mrs Gradin, before coming to the individual requests I would like to situate this report within a wider framework, even if this may seem presumptuous to the eyes and in the ears of some Members. German: Herr Präsident, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen, liebe Frau Kommissarin Gradin! Bevor ich zu unseren einzelnen Forderungen komme, möchte ich diesen Bericht in einen größeren Zusammenhang stellen, auch wenn dies in den Augen und Ohren der einen oder anderen vielleicht anmaßend erscheint. French: Monsieur le Président, chers collègues, Mme le commissaire, avant que je n'en vienne à nos exigences, j'aimerais placer ce rapport dans un contexte plus large même si cela paraît prétentieux aux yeux de l'un ou l'autre. EAP Schmied 13


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