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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carl P. Gabbard PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation revised by Alberto Cordova, University of Texas at San Antonio Chapter 13 Sociocultural Influences on Motor Development
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Basic Terminology of Socialization Socialization A set of events and process by which individuals acquire the beliefs and behaviors of the particular society or subgroup in which they live in and, in most cases, are born into Culture A subset of society; the collection of specific attitudes, behaviors, and products that characterize an identifiable group of people
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Status An individual’s position in society Social Class Socioeconomic status (SES), a grouping of people with similar economic, education, and occupational characteristics Social Role Job description; the particular behavior that an individual uses to fulfill a position of status Norm A standard of behavior that would be expected from members of a similar group of society Structure of Socialization
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Socializing Processes Direct instruction Concepts and ideas conveyed through language Shaping Allows for the individual to benefit from experience Modeling Learning from observing others who serve as models
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Socializing Agents Socializing Agent An individual, group, or institution that interprets culture to the individual It is generally acknowledged that the family is the primary socializing agent that transmits cultural content during the early developmental years
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Model Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Chronosystem Figure 13.1
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The PPCT Model Process Fused and dynamic relation of the person and context Person Biological, cognitive, and emotional characteristics Context Nested levels or systems of the ecology Time Multiple dimensions of temporality
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary Influences During Childhood and Adolescence The family Parental beliefs and attitudes First contact with motor activities Provide sport equipment Fathers are primary influencing agent Socioeconomic status, affects: Buying equipment Paying for sports clubs or programs Figure 13.2
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Participation in sports or physical activity at school, in clubs, or educational programs Participation in play activities Why is play important? Figure 13.3 Participation in Play
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 13.1
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Coaches and Teachers Associated with school and community Guide motor development and refine sport skills Promote involvement
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gender-Role Expectations and Stereotyping Sex-roles Social expectations of how individuals should act and think as males and females Sex-role stereotyping The use of different methods to introduce boys and girls to physical activities and sports Should males and females be treated differently? Figure 13.4
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Self-Esteem A reflection of social support in the form of parents, peers, teachers, and coaches, etc. Frequent encouragement Specific positive feedback Recognition
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Possible Influences of Race Importance of a successful sports career Increases socioeconomic status (fame and fortune) Role models Major obstacles outside of sports and entertainment Encouragement from family and community
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary Influences During Adulthood Media Peers Spouse Community Doctors, instructors, programs, and parks and recreation
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aging Regression of physical skills Signs of physical aging Age-related stereotyping Figure 13.5
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aging – Exercise Motivation Activity Theory The more active older people are, the less likely they are to show discontent with life as they age. Bandura’s Social Cognitive theory Self-efficacy Outcome expectations Self-evaluated dissatisfaction
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sociocultural influences have been shown to have a lifelong effect on involvement in physical activity and motor development. Self-esteem influences participation in play and sports involvement. Beginning with early adulthood, the primary social agents are the media (education), peers, spouses, and individuals in the community. As individuals approach middle age and enter late adulthood, concern for health status and physical appearance normally receives more attention. The activity theory supports the idea that an active lifestyle during later adulthood increases the likelihood for life satisfaction. Summary
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carl P. Gabbard PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation revised by Alberto Cordova,
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