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Psyc 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 1 Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Psyc 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 1 Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psyc 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 1 Introduction

2 Human Development Scientific study of human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why people change with increasing age, and how and why they remain the same.

3 Lifespan Perspective Recognizes the sources of continuity and discontinuity from the beginning of life to the end –Multidirectional –Multicontextual –Multicultural –Multidisciplinary –Plastic

4 Domains of Human Development Biosocial – brain and body as well as changes in them and the social influences that guide them Cognitive – thought processes, perceptual abilities, and language mastery, as well as the educational institutions that encourage them

5 Domains of Human Development Psychosocial – Emotions, personality, and interpersonal relationship with family, friends, and wider community.

6 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model Four nested levels –Microsystems – immediate social setting –Mesosystem – connections among various Microsystems –Exosystem – community structures and local educational, medical, employment, and communications systems that directly affect the various Microsystems and indirectly affect everyone in those Microsystems

7 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model Four nested levels (continued) –Macrosystem – cultural values, political philosophies, economic patterns, and social conditions –Chronosystem – important of historical time on development

8 Contextual Effects Historical – ideas about development continue to change – social construction SES – income, education, place of residence, and occupation Culture – values, assumptions, and customs, as well as physical objects (clothing, technologies, cuisine, etc.)

9 Scientific Method Formulate a research question Develop a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Draw conclusions Make the findings available

10 Controversies Nature/nurture Continuity/discontinuity Difference/deficit

11 Research Methods How research is designed affects –Validity –Accuracy –Generalizability –Usefulness

12 Research Methods Scientific observation Correlation Experimental Survey Case study

13 Research Methods Cross sectional—groups of people who are different in age but share other important characteristics (education level, SES, ethnic, etc.) are compared on the characteristics that is of interest to the researcher(s).

14 Research Methods Longitudinal research—the same people are studied over a period of time. Longitudinal research is particularly useful in studying developmental trends that occur over a long age span.

15 Research Methods Cross-sequential research—several groups of people at different ages (cross-sectional component) are followed over time (longitudinal component).

16 Ethics and Science When studying people, scientists take special care to ensure that participation is voluntary and harmless, and that the study’s benefits outweigh its cost.

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