Presentation on theme: "U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools"— Presentation transcript:
1 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools Prevention-Mitigation FY 2007 Initial Grantee Meeting December 5 – 7, 2007 ~ San Diego, CaliforniaPegi McEvoySafety and Security DepartmentSeattle Public SchoolsBilly LassiterNorth Carolina Center for the Prevention of School ViolenceU.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools400 Maryland Avenue, SW / Washington, DC 20202
2 Overview of Session Collaboration Safety and security needs assessment Discuss key messages, definitions and examples of Prevention-Mitigation phaseIdentify key components of Prevention-Mitigation:CollaborationSafety and security needs assessmentHazard analysisNext stepsPractice Prevention-Mitigation techniquesQuestions?MattCollaboration- How to get the best information and cooperation….who should come to the table? Do they come to your table, do you go to their table, or both?Assessment – Of your strengths/challenges and readiness….”If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it”….Stargeek.com (from the Internet gets serious”, 2003.Assessment of your plan compared to best practices, state and national guidelines and current research theory. For Pennsylvania, this would be PEMA, School Operations Plan, current policies… a very active year for new emergency/safety policies…Internet safety, minors and mental health, gun free act, suicide prevention, 2001 bullying and updated drug and alcohHazard Analysis – Region, District, School, Classroom or program specific
3 Key MessagesThe Prevention-Mitigation phase is designed to assess and address the safety and integrity of facilities, security and culture and climate of schoolsPrevention-Mitigation builds on what schools are already doingSchools need to take an all-hazards approach when assessing risks and vulnerabilitiesPrevention-Mitigation is an ongoing process that is directly linked to the other three phases of emergency managementStrong community partnerships and leadership support facilitates a more comprehensive Prevention-Mitigation strategyMattCreating a safe learning environment is not new to any school or district….students cannot learn unless they feel and are safeTeachers cannot teach unless they feel safeMany schools already have curricula and programs aimed at preventing students from initiating harmful behaviorsMany schools have in-service for staff to learn prevention and mitigation techniquesThere is continuity between the Prevention & Mitigation phase and other programs most schools are already implementing, such as:Life skills programs,Anti-bullying programsSchool-wide discipline effortsSchool climate/ PBIS – link between school safety and academic achievementPreventing Educator Sexual Misconduct……Understanding the Social Skilled MolesterThis is part of the EM cycle that you have CONTROL overDoing this phase well SETS UP FOR SUCCESS OR FAILURE in other phasesAbout far more than HARDENING your school
4 Phases of Emergency Management Prevention-MitigationPreparednessResponseRecoveryMatt
5 What is the Prevention- Mitigation Phase? Prevention is the action(s) schools and districts take to decrease the likelihood that an event or crisis will occurMitigation is the action(s) schools and districts take to eliminate or reduce the loss of life and property damage related to an event(s) that cannot be preventedGOAL: Assess and address the safety and integrity of facilities, security and culture and climate of schools to ensure a safe and healthy learning environmentMattThe prevention/mitigation section is the foundation for the entire planning process.Prevention & Mitigation must address both the physical building and grounds structure as well as the culture and climate of the schoolThis phase aims to prevent hazards and minimize threats so that healthy learning can continuePrevention/Mitigation must address seasonal and cultural changes in the education environment. Plans for demonstrations, prom season, spring and increased in suicidal ideation and completion.Teachers/playground supervisors must know the 5 steps to effective limit setting.Proper hand washing techniques.
6 Prevention ExamplesCommunication procedures for staff, parents, students and the mediaCurrent efforts being implemented by the school:Wellness activities (mental health services, alcohol prevention, etc.)Bullying prevention programsSafety procedures such as hazardous weather drillsEstablished and current policies that are related, but not limited, to:Food preparationMail handlingBuilding accessStudent accountingAssessments related to threat, physical infrastructure and culture and climateMattHere we want to ask for audience participation – ask them to give examples of things they are doingThis section relates more to the humans sideWeave in the connectivity piece – reference the USDE/Secret Service threat assessment processWeave in strategies such as QPR, etc…Communications that all students/staff need to react to need to be clear and concise (don’t use codes)Assess your assessment and accountability system. How many of your districts have specific safety standards that evaluated in each person’s performance appraisals? How many describe the indicators used? How many know?Maryland: Emergency management for anaphylaxis care,West Virginia: crisis response teams,Penn: NIMS, EOP templates, training guidelinesOhio: School Climate Guidelines #5 Addressing real and perceived threats to safety and security….uses incident command and includes prevention benchmarks on conflict management, bullying and harassment, discipline as teaching (not punishment) not in strategic plan.
7 Mitigation Examples Bolting bookshelves to the wall Fencing hazardous areasAnchoring outdoor equipment that could become a flying projectileApplying Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles to school grounds and structuresPegiAgain ask for audience participation…How can you mitigate against flooding, tornadoes, crime?How can students help in mitigation strategies? Community service projects…..as a science project we have the 5th graders measure the bark on the playground under equipment……. And fluff it to keep it at minimum standards.What are some mitigation techniques for pandemic flu? Identifying essential functions and developing business continuity plans…..for instance, who is the most important person in the district? Payroll manager. How do we make sure that we don’t create another (secondary) disaster by not having backups for the payroll and IT department. How do we mitigate for our medically fragile students and the staff that provide their care….does anyone have staff that must suction students or have students on ventilators? Do you have N95 masks as opposed to flat masks for these students.What are some social/emotional mitigation techniques? All resiliency building programs. All Stress Inoculation techniques. Psychological First Aid.Introduce CPTED.
8 What is Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)? The three principles of the CPTED program are:Natural surveillance – the ability to easily see what is occurring in a particular settingNatural access control – the ability to restrict who enters or exits an environmentTerritoriality-maintenance – the ability to demonstrate ownership of and respect for propertyMore information on CPTED is available atPegiCrime Prevention through Environmental DesignA great time for schools to consider CPTED principles is when new construction, or new school buildings, is being plannedNatural Surveillance:CPTED does not promote the “fortressing” of properties, quite the contrary. The ability to see what is going on in and around a property should be your first priority. Perpetrators of crime are attracted to areas and residences with low visibility. This can be counteracted in the following ways:Lighting – street/parking lot lights should be well spaced and in working order, alleys and parking areas should also be lit. Lighting should also reflect the intended hours of operation, i.e. lighting of playfields or structures in local parks may actually encourage after hour criminal activities. Motion-sensing lights perform the double duty of providing light when needed and letting trespasser know that “they have been seen.”Landscaping – Generally uniformly shaped sites are safer than irregularly shaped sites because there are less hiding places. Plants should follow the 3-8 rule of thumb; hedges no higher than 3 feet, and tree canopies starting no lower than 8 feet or trees planted closer to buildings than 8 feet. This should is especially important around entryways and windows.Fencing – Fences should allow people to see in. Even if the fences are built for privacy, they should be of a design that is not too tall and has some visibility. Watch out for fencing around garbage collection areas.Windows – Windows that look out on streets and alleys are good natural surveillance, especially bay windows. These should not be blocked. Retirees, stay at home parents, and people working from home offices can provide good surveillance for the neighborhood during the day.Natural access control:Access Control refers to schools and other public areas having distinct and legitimate points for entry and exits. However, this should also be balanced to avoid “user entrapment,” or not allowing for easy escape or police response to an area. Generally crime perpetrators will avoid areas that only allow them with one way to enter and exit, and that have high visibility and/or have a high volume of user traffic. This can be assured by:Playground/Park designs with open, uninhibited access and a defined entry point. A good example is a playground with transparent fencing around the perimeter, and one large opening in the gate for entry.Schools with one legitimate entrance. Avoid recessed doorways. Doors that are clearly visible and well lit. doors with windows and peepholes.A natural inclination is to place public restrooms away from centers of activity, but they can become dangerous if placed in an uninhabited area. Restrooms that are down a long hallway, or foyer entrances with closed doors, are far away from the entrance of a park, or are not visible from the roadway can become problem areas.Territoriality/Defensible space:This explanation of the "broken window" theory was written by Henry G. Cisneros when he was Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. It was published in a series of essays titled "Defensible Space: Deterring Crime and Building Community" - January 1995.James Q. Wilson and George Kelling developed the `broken windows' thesis. The "broken window" theory suggests that neighborhood order strategies such as those listed below help to deter and reduce crime.Quick replacement of broken windowsPrompt removal of abandoned vehiclesFast clean up of illegally dumped items, litter and spilled garbageFresh paint and Quick paint out of graffiti (but not so quick that you haven’t secured evidence)Finding (or building) better places for teens to gather than street cornersClean sidewalks and street guttersMuch like the “Broken Window” theory advocates the quick attending to nuisance crimes to show that a neighborhood is valued, territoriality means showing that your community “owns” your neighborhood. While this includes removing graffiti and keeping buildings and yards maintained, it also refers to small personal touches. Creating flower gardens or boxes, putting out seasonal decorations, or maintaining the plants in traffic circles seems simple, but sends a clear message that people in your neighborhood care and won’t tolerate crime in their area.
9 Good CPTED Examples Pegi Office is placed at 45 degree angle so as to see entrance….this is only as good as the people who are using itPlayground is fenced in so property boundaries are clear…private and public spaces…..playgrounds are frequently next to community centers/areas.
10 Prevention-Mitigation: Key Components Collaborate and build relationships with partnersConduct a safety and security needs assessment:Become familiar with available resourcesUnderstand the environmentAnalyze hazardsTake next stepsPegiRisk and vulnerability assessments can be used to determine which hazards and/or threats can be prevented or mitigated in your schoolsThis strategy can be used to prioritize identified risks. What is more likely to happen – then spend your efforts there.When I go into schools, I ask them to identify their 3 greatest risk/vulnerabilities in 3 arenas…..physical, social, emotional
11 Building Relationships Establishing teacher/student relationshipsBuilding trust among school staff, students and parentsFinding ways for students to be “connected” to the school—during and after the school dayEstablishing a welcoming school climate and cultureMattStrong relationships can help break the code of silence amongst studentsWhat are some evidence based programs that increase bonding?
12 Partner Collaboration Considerations Invite community partners to be part of the planning processWork closely with emergency managers as mitigation of community hazards may be beyond the control of school officialsInvolve regional, local and school–based leadersGenerate broad based support in the Prevention-Mitigation phase, this helps create “buy-in” for the entire emergency management processMattPrevention and mitigation are community activities so leadership and support are necessary to ensure that the right people are at the planning tableLeadership begins at the topSchools and districts are likely to face an uphill battle if state and local governments are not supportiveAudience – ask for examples of their community partnersWhat would be some examples that are beyond the control of schools (natural disasters, environmental accidents)
13 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Available Resources Prior to conducting a safety and security needs assessment, schools and districts should gather current resources including, but not limited to:Previous assessments:City or county vulnerability assessmentsFacility assessments, e.g., Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)Culture and climate assessmentsRelevant and recent data:School specific incident dataSchool climate and culture dataCommunity hazard profileMattSome data has already been collected, such as the community hazard profile, so schools should be familiar with available resources before using valuable staff time to collect information that already exists
14 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Understanding the Environment Assessments should be comprehensive and addresshazards or risks in the following settings:School-basedNegative school climate perceptionsObstructed pathways, unsafe playground equipmentDistrict-wideUnclear or outdated school policies and proceduresSurrounding neighborhoodHigh crime ratesNext to an intersection with heavy truck trafficGreater communityNearby nuclear power plant, located on a fault linePegiKnow the school building and your customers (kids/parents/staff)assess potential hazards….assess resourcesconduct regular safety audits of the physical plantreview climate data for staff and studentsReview OJI information…e.g. Our district found the greatest number of staff injuries was autistic children biting staff in elementary school. The greatest loss of days was due to custodial back injuries.Know the communityUnderstand the unique challenges and opportunities associated with the geographical location (Rural, Urban, Sub-urban) of the school(s) for instance…….would you better or worse in a rural area if there is pandemic flu (more social isolation, but perhaps more farms with domestic chickens)work with the local emergency management team to assess surrounding hazards.schools and districts should be active partners in community-wide risk assessment and mitigation planning,,, you need them to come to your table, but schools also need to attend the community planning. For instance, during the pandemic flu planning process, PHD were lookng for large walk-in refrigerators to use as temporary morgues. They thought they could and should use kitchen walk ins….to facilitate collaboration, school districts may want to develop Memorandum of Understandings (MOU) that outline each agencies responsibility. Use this as a tie in to Preparedness and Response
17 PegiAcross the street is an intermediate school – need to talk to community partners (church, gas station, etc.)
18 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Identify Hazards A comprehensive emergency management plan shouldaddress all-hazards, including, but not limited to:Natural – Earthquakes, tornados, floodsTechnological – Power outages, nearby nuclear plantInfrastructure – Roads and bridges, utilitiesNonstructural – Portable room dividers, bookshelves, suspended ceilings and light fixturesMan-made – Hazardous materials release, terrorismBiological – Pandemic influenza, contaminated foodPhysical wellbeing – Broken bones, suicideStudent culture and climate – Bullying, drugs, violent behaviorPegiAll hazards approachWe need to include more personal or human issues such as:violent behavior by studentsbullyingdrugs and alcohol
19 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Profile Hazards When developing a hazard profile, schools shouldConsider questions, such as:Frequency of occurrence – How often is it likely to occur?Magnitude and potential intensity – How bad can it get?Location – Where is it likely to strike?Probable geographical extent – How large an area will be affected?Duration – How long could it last?Seasonal pattern – What time of year it is more likely to occur?Speed of onset – How fast will it occur?Availability of warnings – How much warning time is there? Does a warning system exist?PegiNeed audience participation hereIdentify some hazards and then walk through the stepsEmphasize why it is important to prioritize your prevention/mitigation targetsTalk about why it is important that the Principal take the lead on this and not delegate it to other staff.
20 Hazard Analysis: Determine Vulnerability and Risk Vulnerability is the susceptibility of life, property or environmentRisk is the probability of suffering loss or injury from the impact of a hazard:Creating a risk analysis matrix is one means of graphically representing riskMatt
21 Risk Matrix Example Probability Severity High Hurricane Tornado Medium FloodViolenceLowHazmat SpillPegiThis is just one risk analysis matrix.You may also want to consider:Frequency (highly likely, likely, possible, unlikely)magnitude (catastrophic, critical, limited, negligible)warning (minimal, 6-12 hours, hours, 24+ hours)Severity
22 Take Action Some suggested Prevention-Mitigation action items and next steps:Connect with partnersReview audits and dataAssign or determine responsibilityEncourage participation of all partnersAssess problemsConduct an assessment with all partnersImplement necessary changesMattWhen you return to your district, you may consider:Connecting with community emergency responders to identify local hazardsReviewing the last safety audit to examine school buildings and grounds as well as all relevant dataAssigning or determining responsibility for overseeing Prevention & Mitigation strategies in your school or districtEncouraging staff to provide input and feedback into the crisis planning processAssessing the major problems in your school and how the school addresses them.Conducting an assessment to determine how the school and district’s problems may impact vulnerability.
23 Summary Prevention-Mitigation is a continual process Schools are already involved in creating safe learning environments—Prevention-Mitigation builds on these effortsBoth physical facilities and social/emotional needs of students and staff must be considered prior to the occurrence of an incident or eventPrevention-Mitigation involves establishing key community partnerships and assessing and addressing identified safety and security needs