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U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools

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1 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools
Prevention-Mitigation FY 2007 Initial Grantee Meeting December 5 – 7, 2007 ~ San Diego, California Pegi McEvoy Safety and Security Department Seattle Public Schools Billy Lassiter North Carolina Center for the Prevention of School Violence U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools 400 Maryland Avenue, SW / Washington, DC 20202

2 Overview of Session Collaboration Safety and security needs assessment
Discuss key messages, definitions and examples of Prevention-Mitigation phase Identify key components of Prevention-Mitigation: Collaboration Safety and security needs assessment Hazard analysis Next steps Practice Prevention-Mitigation techniques Questions? Matt Collaboration- How to get the best information and cooperation….who should come to the table? Do they come to your table, do you go to their table, or both? Assessment – Of your strengths/challenges and readiness….”If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it”… (from the Internet gets serious”, 2003. Assessment of your plan compared to best practices, state and national guidelines and current research theory. For Pennsylvania, this would be PEMA, School Operations Plan, current policies… a very active year for new emergency/safety policies…Internet safety, minors and mental health, gun free act, suicide prevention, 2001 bullying and updated drug and alcoh Hazard Analysis – Region, District, School, Classroom or program specific

3 Key Messages The Prevention-Mitigation phase is designed to assess and address the safety and integrity of facilities, security and culture and climate of schools Prevention-Mitigation builds on what schools are already doing Schools need to take an all-hazards approach when assessing risks and vulnerabilities Prevention-Mitigation is an ongoing process that is directly linked to the other three phases of emergency management Strong community partnerships and leadership support facilitates a more comprehensive Prevention-Mitigation strategy Matt Creating a safe learning environment is not new to any school or district….students cannot learn unless they feel and are safe Teachers cannot teach unless they feel safe Many schools already have curricula and programs aimed at preventing students from initiating harmful behaviors Many schools have in-service for staff to learn prevention and mitigation techniques There is continuity between the Prevention & Mitigation phase and other programs most schools are already implementing, such as: Life skills programs, Anti-bullying programs School-wide discipline efforts School climate/ PBIS – link between school safety and academic achievement Preventing Educator Sexual Misconduct……Understanding the Social Skilled Molester This is part of the EM cycle that you have CONTROL over Doing this phase well SETS UP FOR SUCCESS OR FAILURE in other phases About far more than HARDENING your school

4 Phases of Emergency Management
Prevention- Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery Matt

5 What is the Prevention- Mitigation Phase?
Prevention is the action(s) schools and districts take to decrease the likelihood that an event or crisis will occur Mitigation is the action(s) schools and districts take to eliminate or reduce the loss of life and property damage related to an event(s) that cannot be prevented GOAL: Assess and address the safety and integrity of facilities, security and culture and climate of schools to ensure a safe and healthy learning environment Matt The prevention/mitigation section is the foundation for the entire planning process. Prevention & Mitigation must address both the physical building and grounds structure as well as the culture and climate of the school This phase aims to prevent hazards and minimize threats so that healthy learning can continue Prevention/Mitigation must address seasonal and cultural changes in the education environment. Plans for demonstrations, prom season, spring and increased in suicidal ideation and completion. Teachers/playground supervisors must know the 5 steps to effective limit setting. Proper hand washing techniques.

6 Prevention Examples Communication procedures for staff, parents, students and the media Current efforts being implemented by the school: Wellness activities (mental health services, alcohol prevention, etc.) Bullying prevention programs Safety procedures such as hazardous weather drills Established and current policies that are related, but not limited, to: Food preparation Mail handling Building access Student accounting Assessments related to threat, physical infrastructure and culture and climate Matt Here we want to ask for audience participation – ask them to give examples of things they are doing This section relates more to the humans side Weave in the connectivity piece – reference the USDE/Secret Service threat assessment process Weave in strategies such as QPR, etc… Communications that all students/staff need to react to need to be clear and concise (don’t use codes) Assess your assessment and accountability system. How many of your districts have specific safety standards that evaluated in each person’s performance appraisals? How many describe the indicators used? How many know? Maryland: Emergency management for anaphylaxis care, West Virginia: crisis response teams, Penn: NIMS, EOP templates, training guidelines Ohio: School Climate Guidelines #5 Addressing real and perceived threats to safety and security….uses incident command and includes prevention benchmarks on conflict management, bullying and harassment, discipline as teaching (not punishment) not in strategic plan.

7 Mitigation Examples Bolting bookshelves to the wall
Fencing hazardous areas Anchoring outdoor equipment that could become a flying projectile Applying Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles to school grounds and structures Pegi Again ask for audience participation… How can you mitigate against flooding, tornadoes, crime? How can students help in mitigation strategies? Community service projects… a science project we have the 5th graders measure the bark on the playground under equipment……. And fluff it to keep it at minimum standards. What are some mitigation techniques for pandemic flu? Identifying essential functions and developing business continuity plans…..for instance, who is the most important person in the district? Payroll manager. How do we make sure that we don’t create another (secondary) disaster by not having backups for the payroll and IT department. How do we mitigate for our medically fragile students and the staff that provide their care….does anyone have staff that must suction students or have students on ventilators? Do you have N95 masks as opposed to flat masks for these students. What are some social/emotional mitigation techniques? All resiliency building programs. All Stress Inoculation techniques. Psychological First Aid. Introduce CPTED.

8 What is Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)?
The three principles of the CPTED program are: Natural surveillance – the ability to easily see what is occurring in a particular setting Natural access control – the ability to restrict who enters or exits an environment Territoriality-maintenance – the ability to demonstrate ownership of and respect for property More information on CPTED is available at Pegi Crime Prevention through Environmental Design A great time for schools to consider CPTED principles is when new construction, or new school buildings, is being planned Natural Surveillance: CPTED does not promote the “fortressing” of properties, quite the contrary. The ability to see what is going on in and around a property should be your first priority. Perpetrators of crime are attracted to areas and residences with low visibility. This can be counteracted in the following ways: Lighting – street/parking lot lights should be well spaced and in working order, alleys and parking areas should also be lit. Lighting should also reflect the intended hours of operation, i.e. lighting of playfields or structures in local parks may actually encourage after hour criminal activities. Motion-sensing lights perform the double duty of providing light when needed and letting trespasser know that “they have been seen.” Landscaping – Generally uniformly shaped sites are safer than irregularly shaped sites because there are less hiding places. Plants should follow the 3-8 rule of thumb; hedges no higher than 3 feet, and tree canopies starting no lower than 8 feet or trees planted closer to buildings than 8 feet. This should is especially important around entryways and windows. Fencing – Fences should allow people to see in. Even if the fences are built for privacy, they should be of a design that is not too tall and has some visibility. Watch out for fencing around garbage collection areas. Windows – Windows that look out on streets and alleys are good natural surveillance, especially bay windows. These should not be blocked. Retirees, stay at home parents, and people working from home offices can provide good surveillance for the neighborhood during the day. Natural access control: Access Control refers to schools and other public areas having distinct and legitimate points for entry and exits. However, this should also be balanced to avoid “user entrapment,” or not allowing for easy escape or police response to an area. Generally crime perpetrators will avoid areas that only allow them with one way to enter and exit, and that have high visibility and/or have a high volume of user traffic. This can be assured by: Playground/Park designs with open, uninhibited access and a defined entry point. A good example is a playground with transparent fencing around the perimeter, and one large opening in the gate for entry. Schools with one legitimate entrance. Avoid recessed doorways. Doors that are clearly visible and well lit. doors with windows and peepholes. A natural inclination is to place public restrooms away from centers of activity, but they can become dangerous if placed in an uninhabited area. Restrooms that are down a long hallway, or foyer entrances with closed doors, are far away from the entrance of a park, or are not visible from the roadway can become problem areas. Territoriality/Defensible space: This explanation of the "broken window" theory was written by Henry G. Cisneros when he was Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. It was published in a series of essays titled "Defensible Space: Deterring Crime and Building Community" - January 1995. James Q. Wilson and George Kelling developed the `broken windows' thesis. The "broken window" theory suggests that neighborhood order strategies such as those listed below help to deter and reduce crime. Quick replacement of broken windows Prompt removal of abandoned vehicles Fast clean up of illegally dumped items, litter and spilled garbage Fresh paint and Quick paint out of graffiti (but not so quick that you haven’t secured evidence) Finding (or building) better places for teens to gather than street corners Clean sidewalks and street gutters Much like the “Broken Window” theory advocates the quick attending to nuisance crimes to show that a neighborhood is valued, territoriality means showing that your community “owns” your neighborhood. While this includes removing graffiti and keeping buildings and yards maintained, it also refers to small personal touches. Creating flower gardens or boxes, putting out seasonal decorations, or maintaining the plants in traffic circles seems simple, but sends a clear message that people in your neighborhood care and won’t tolerate crime in their area.

9 Good CPTED Examples Pegi
Office is placed at 45 degree angle so as to see entrance….this is only as good as the people who are using it Playground is fenced in so property boundaries are clear…private and public spaces…..playgrounds are frequently next to community centers/areas.

10 Prevention-Mitigation: Key Components
Collaborate and build relationships with partners Conduct a safety and security needs assessment: Become familiar with available resources Understand the environment Analyze hazards Take next steps Pegi Risk and vulnerability assessments can be used to determine which hazards and/or threats can be prevented or mitigated in your schools This strategy can be used to prioritize identified risks. What is more likely to happen – then spend your efforts there. When I go into schools, I ask them to identify their 3 greatest risk/vulnerabilities in 3 arenas…..physical, social, emotional

11 Building Relationships
Establishing teacher/student relationships Building trust among school staff, students and parents Finding ways for students to be “connected” to the school—during and after the school day Establishing a welcoming school climate and culture Matt Strong relationships can help break the code of silence amongst students What are some evidence based programs that increase bonding?

12 Partner Collaboration Considerations
Invite community partners to be part of the planning process Work closely with emergency managers as mitigation of community hazards may be beyond the control of school officials Involve regional, local and school–based leaders Generate broad based support in the Prevention-Mitigation phase, this helps create “buy-in” for the entire emergency management process Matt Prevention and mitigation are community activities so leadership and support are necessary to ensure that the right people are at the planning table Leadership begins at the top Schools and districts are likely to face an uphill battle if state and local governments are not supportive Audience – ask for examples of their community partners What would be some examples that are beyond the control of schools (natural disasters, environmental accidents)

13 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Available Resources
Prior to conducting a safety and security needs assessment, schools and districts should gather current resources including, but not limited to: Previous assessments: City or county vulnerability assessments Facility assessments, e.g., Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Culture and climate assessments Relevant and recent data: School specific incident data School climate and culture data Community hazard profile Matt Some data has already been collected, such as the community hazard profile, so schools should be familiar with available resources before using valuable staff time to collect information that already exists

14 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Understanding the Environment
Assessments should be comprehensive and address hazards or risks in the following settings: School-based Negative school climate perceptions Obstructed pathways, unsafe playground equipment District-wide Unclear or outdated school policies and procedures Surrounding neighborhood High crime rates Next to an intersection with heavy truck traffic Greater community Nearby nuclear power plant, located on a fault line Pegi Know the school building and your customers (kids/parents/staff) assess potential hazards….assess resources conduct regular safety audits of the physical plant review climate data for staff and students Review OJI information…e.g. Our district found the greatest number of staff injuries was autistic children biting staff in elementary school. The greatest loss of days was due to custodial back injuries. Know the community Understand the unique challenges and opportunities associated with the geographical location (Rural, Urban, Sub-urban) of the school(s) for instance…….would you better or worse in a rural area if there is pandemic flu (more social isolation, but perhaps more farms with domestic chickens) work with the local emergency management team to assess surrounding hazards. schools and districts should be active partners in community-wide risk assessment and mitigation planning,,, you need them to come to your table, but schools also need to attend the community planning. For instance, during the pandemic flu planning process, PHD were lookng for large walk-in refrigerators to use as temporary morgues. They thought they could and should use kitchen walk ins…. to facilitate collaboration, school districts may want to develop Memorandum of Understandings (MOU) that outline each agencies responsibility. Use this as a tie in to Preparedness and Response



17 Pegi Across the street is an intermediate school – need to talk to community partners (church, gas station, etc.)

18 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Identify Hazards
A comprehensive emergency management plan should address all-hazards, including, but not limited to: Natural – Earthquakes, tornados, floods Technological – Power outages, nearby nuclear plant Infrastructure – Roads and bridges, utilities Nonstructural – Portable room dividers, bookshelves, suspended ceilings and light fixtures Man-made – Hazardous materials release, terrorism Biological – Pandemic influenza, contaminated food Physical wellbeing – Broken bones, suicide Student culture and climate – Bullying, drugs, violent behavior Pegi All hazards approach We need to include more personal or human issues such as: violent behavior by students bullying drugs and alcohol

19 Safety and Security Needs Assessment: Profile Hazards
When developing a hazard profile, schools should Consider questions, such as: Frequency of occurrence – How often is it likely to occur? Magnitude and potential intensity – How bad can it get? Location – Where is it likely to strike? Probable geographical extent – How large an area will be affected? Duration – How long could it last? Seasonal pattern – What time of year it is more likely to occur? Speed of onset – How fast will it occur? Availability of warnings – How much warning time is there? Does a warning system exist? Pegi Need audience participation here Identify some hazards and then walk through the steps Emphasize why it is important to prioritize your prevention/mitigation targets Talk about why it is important that the Principal take the lead on this and not delegate it to other staff.

20 Hazard Analysis: Determine Vulnerability and Risk
Vulnerability is the susceptibility of life, property or environment Risk is the probability of suffering loss or injury from the impact of a hazard: Creating a risk analysis matrix is one means of graphically representing risk Matt

21 Risk Matrix Example Probability Severity High Hurricane Tornado Medium
Flood Violence Low Hazmat Spill Pegi This is just one risk analysis matrix. You may also want to consider: Frequency (highly likely, likely, possible, unlikely) magnitude (catastrophic, critical, limited, negligible) warning (minimal, 6-12 hours, hours, 24+ hours) Severity

22 Take Action Some suggested Prevention-Mitigation action
items and next steps: Connect with partners Review audits and data Assign or determine responsibility Encourage participation of all partners Assess problems Conduct an assessment with all partners Implement necessary changes Matt When you return to your district, you may consider: Connecting with community emergency responders to identify local hazards Reviewing the last safety audit to examine school buildings and grounds as well as all relevant data Assigning or determining responsibility for overseeing Prevention & Mitigation strategies in your school or district Encouraging staff to provide input and feedback into the crisis planning process Assessing the major problems in your school and how the school addresses them. Conducting an assessment to determine how the school and district’s problems may impact vulnerability.

23 Summary Prevention-Mitigation is a continual process
Schools are already involved in creating safe learning environments—Prevention-Mitigation builds on these efforts Both physical facilities and social/emotional needs of students and staff must be considered prior to the occurrence of an incident or event Prevention-Mitigation involves establishing key community partnerships and assessing and addressing identified safety and security needs

24 Interactive Activity

25 Ladder unprotected and near stairs……falling hazard
Ladder unprotected and near stairs……falling hazard. Uncovered fire alarm

26 Truck where kids are being delivered (visual barrier)…
Truck where kids are being delivered (visual barrier)….. Good news is, that they have a greeter!

27 Non-tempered glass in hallway…. Heavy things on top of bookcase…
Non-tempered glass in hallway….. Heavy things on top of bookcase…. Messy, doesn’t bode well for “school pride”

28 Walkers hazard….. These girls sent this to a local TV station and got a sidewalk put in…..yea students!

29 Unlocked bikes (theft), shrubs too close to windows and creating visual barriers

30 Good hiding areas! Trees too close

31 Places for “bad storage” , kids hiding… not a good lock!

32 Lots of glass by major egress (windstorms, etc)…. Good plantings!

33 Brick denotes that door is frequently propped open…
Brick denotes that door is frequently propped open….. Also brick can be used as a weapon

34 Great final picture to end up in an upbeat way……. The perfect hallway…
Great final picture to end up in an upbeat way……. The perfect hallway…..showing school pride and good visability.

35 THANK YOU!!! For More Information Contact:
Pegi McEvoy: Billy Lassiter: REMS TA Center: (REMS)

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