2 Does your plan fit with best practices models? The United States Department of Education, Jane’s and Safe Havens International all recommend a four phase, all hazards plan that is locally tailored and developed with the following components: –Prevention/Mitigation –Preparedness –Response –Recovery Each phase is part of a cycle that continuously repeats itself, and a proper crisis plan will incorporate each phase into a separate section. Individual types of crises are dealt with within this framework, and not as standalone planes (for example, you do not need a “Terrorism Plan”, but terrorism should be dealt with as part of the overall plan).
3 Prevention/Mitigation This section deals with: Facilities Security Culture & Climate The purpose of this section is to reduce the harmful effects of an incident & lessen the need for a response in the event that a crisis does occur. This means that a school should do everything they can to prevent hazards from happening while understanding that some crises may occur despite our best preparation (such as natural disasters and acts of terrorism). While we will do our best to keep these incidents from occurring, we must realistically prepare for them so that when a crisis does occur, minimal damage and loss of life occurs.
4 Examples of Prevention/Mitigation Measures Include: Proper access control, which can guard against: –Non-custodial parental abductions –Child molesters –Gang/Drug Violence Thorough background checks: –All employees/volunteers should be screened –Without a fingerprint, a background check is useless –Police background checks should be used (out of state convictions and dropped charges are often missed in commercial checks) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) - Emphasizes Natural Surveillance
5 More Prevention Measures: Good physical security Increased surveillance of high risk areas School safety zone measures Ability to increase Law Enforcement activities in the event of a crisis Visual/mechanical weapons screening Good computer/information/route security
6 Preparedness To develop this section of the plan you should: Identify all stakeholders in the community (Local churches, businesses, media, etc.) Develop communication methods Prepare a method to obtain equipment & supplies quickly in the event of a crisis Organize maps & building information Develop student release procedures for crisis situations Practice, practice, practice This phase addresses the investment of time & resources to ensure a rapid, coordinated and effective response in the event of a crisis.
7 Preparedness Issues Does your plan cover Chemical, Biological and Radiological incidents separately? (They are not all dealt with in the same way) Internalize local resources and experts: –Emergency Management –Law Enforcement –Fire –Medical Services –Mental Health –Local Companies Verify the background of all consultants you utilize
8 Response This portion of the plan may include tools such as: –Checklists –Logs –Flip Charts This phase ensures that you follow the Preparedness plan in the midst of a crisis when details are easy to forget. The components of this section are designed to remind you of your role during a crisis and keep track of tasks so that they are not overlooked, and also to record what is done by whom at what time for later analysis.
9 Recovery This section is a written plan to guide mental health and business recovery for all affected (not just the direct victims). It is important to continue with “business as usual” to help those affected recover and return to normalcy. It is also extremely important to monitor anyone directly or indirectly affected for emotional distress after a crisis – more have died from suicide as a result of the Columbine High School shooting than were actually killed on the day of the shooting.
10 Your plan will probably fail if: You bought or copied it It was written for you, particularly if a consultant that does not have an emergency management background wrote it You only have a flip or bubble chart It is not an all hazards plan It was not developed with the input of local emergency response officials It was not standardized district-wide and then customized for each facility It has not been externally evaluated It has not been tested by a series of exercises
11 Emergency Operations Planning Considerations Are transportation personnel involved with planning/training/exercises? Does your plan cover: –Explosions and bomb threats? –HAZMAT/WMD situations? –Active shooter/hostage situations? –Mass contamination incidents? –Mass decontamination of children? –Resumption of “normal” activities? Have ALL staff been trained on their role in the plan? Has the plan been thoroughly tested? (this is a never- ending process)
12 For more information and resources: The United States Department of Education released a guide to the four-phase best practices model for emergency planning. It is available free of charge along with other resources at: www.ed.gov/emergencyplan Jane’s Information Group worked with Safe Havens International to produce a comprehensive 450 page guide to the entire process of school crisis planning, and it remains the definitive work on the subject. Jane’s Safe Schools Planning Guide for All Hazards is available for purchase in the Safe Havens Online Store.Jane’s Safe Schools Planning Guide for All HazardsSafe Havens Online Store If you ever have any questions about school safety or emergency operations planning for schools, please do not hesitate to contact us by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or by using our Contact Form.email@example.comContact Form
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