What is your Objective? THE PROBLEM Curiosity???????? ???????? Observation is a key element here!!!
RESEARCH Gather Information Get some Background about the topic
THE HYPOTHESIS What is a HYPOTHESIS? They can never be completely proven…..but one single experiment can disprove it. IT IS A PREDICTION!! A POSSIBLE EXPLANATION FOR THE OBSERVED SET OF FACTS in the form of a statement.
Time to Experiment!!! Plan the design of your Experiment. Consider the following………
What is the difference in obseration and inference? Inference When you're observing, you're gathering information, as well as most likely forming a hypothesis as you observe an assumption Example: the solid substance formed at the bottom of the test tube must be a new substance since the test tube felt hot and that usually means a chemical reaction took place! Observation When you observe, you become aware of something using one of your senses you simply describe something as it appears statement describing a fact Example: the liquid in the test tube is red
Is it a Controlled Experiment or Field Experiment?? Both Types will have Variables that need to be looked at. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control group Constants
DEPENDENT VARIABLE (Responding Variable) The One You Measure as a result of the changing Independent variable (the data)
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (Manipulated Variable) The one you will vary to see how it may affect the dependent variable
To do a Fair Test (Controlled Experiment) and Obtain a Valid Conclusion you need to……… KEEP ALL VARIABLES CONSTANT, EXCEPT FOR THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE. Examples: amount of sunlight, species of plant, amount of water
OTHER FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN EXPERIMENTING……. How many individuals will you test? How many trials? What outside environmental factors do you need to keep constant? Safety precautions.
Conduct the Experiment A Experimental Group will be the group with the Independent Variable: In this example, the plants receiving the fertilizer. A Control Group will be the group without the Independent Variable In this example, the plants receiving water only A control group is for comparison.
GATHERING DATA Make a data table Label the sections of your table. Always put in the correct units given or being used # of Days Height of First Plant Height of Second Plant 15 cm3cm 28cm7 cm 316cm12 cm
RESULTS Always Title graph and label the X and Y axis. What are the Independent and Dependent Variables in this experiment?
X and Y which goes where? Independent variable goes on the x axis, it is the one you manipulate Dependent variable goes on the y axis, it is the one that is your response to your manipulation!
Accept or Reject your Hypothesis (Meaning: was your hypothesis supported?) What were the sources of error? What patterns did you observe? WHAT WOULD YOU PUT IN YOUR CONCLUSION?
What else do you have to add to the Scientific Method to make it a Lab Report??? The Parts of a Lab Report are: Title Hypothesis Problem (Question to test) Materials Procedure (Methods used) Data Results (Graph) Discussion and Conclusions