Science Labs Begin with a Question Do all groups of pennies have the same physical properties?
Form Your Hypothesis Your hypothesis should be a testable answer to the question or a testable explanation. Hypothesis: All groups of pennies (have or don’t have) the same physical properties.
Independent Variable The Independent Variable is the factor in an experiment that you change purposefully. Independent Variable: The mint date of the pennies.
Levels of the Independent Variable The levels are the different experiments we will conduct. Levels of the Independent Variable: Group A Pennies and Group B Pennies (observe the dates on the pennies to find the date range for the group.)
Control The control is the standard for comparison in the experiment. Since we can compare the pennies in the B group to the pennies in the A group, we will call group A the control group. Control: group A pennies
Repeated trials help to make the experiment valid. How many repeated trials will be performed? Each lab group will perform the experiment and so can count as a trial. Repeated Trials: 6
Dependent Variable The Dependent Variable is the responding variable. What are the factors we will be observing and measuring? Dependent Variable: The physical properties of the pennies (color, luster, mass, volume, and density)
Constants The constants are the factors in the experiment that are kept the same. Constants: 10 pennies in each group.
Procedure Diagram Sketch a diagram to help explain how you will conduct the experiment.
Create a Data Table The first column holds the independent variable and the dependent variable goes to the right. Mint Date ColorLuster Other properties Mass (g) Volume (cm3) Density (g/cm3)
Display the Data as a Graph Determine the best type of graph for your data. A bar graph can compare two quantities like the densities of the groups of pennies.
Conclusion – Summarize the Results Summarize your results in a paragraph. Describe any trends or patterns you notice in your table and graph. Make comparisons of the experimental groups. Use statistics like the mean or range.
Conclusion - Analyze the Results Analyze the results in terms of the lab question. Write a paragraph in which you analyze the results. Include how the results either support or disprove your hypothesis. Explain whether you can answer the lab question.
Conclusion – Apply what you have learned Relate science concepts from class to the results of the experiment. In a paragraph, provide information about concepts in class that relate to this lab. Explain how these concepts help you make sense of your lab results.