Presentation on theme: "Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece."— Presentation transcript:
Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece.
Unit IV Student Skills By the end of the unit, you should be able to… Arrive at an accurate understanding of an informational text through close reading, annotation, opportunities for discussion, and other appropriate strategies. (R.I.1.1) Propose a plausible central idea of an argumentative text, and provide an objective summary of the text. (RI.1.2) Speak coherently about a text, including opinion when appropriate and relevant to text/context; support ideas and opinions using the text itself, other texts, and logical thought. (SL.1.3) Propose a claim, defend that claim with evidence, address possible counterclaims, and apply certain rhetorical techniques they see great writers or speakers utilizing. (RI.3.8) Identify fallacies if present and determine if these fallacies hurt the argument (RI.3.8)
As you hear or read an argument you should ask yourself: 1.Is the argument persuasive? 2.To whom is the argument persuasive?
Ethos, Pathos and Logos 1.Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2.Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument
Ethos The word "ethos" came from the Greek word ethikos meaning moral or showing moral character. Aristotle contends that a speaker must establish moral credibility in the minds of the audience at the beginning of his or her speech. In order to do so, the speaker must show that he or she has expertise in the subject matter of the speech and that he or she is disconnected from topic (i.e., the speaker does not and will not have a direct interest or an ulterior motive for convincing their audience). We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect. ***For example, when a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand all of the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you nonetheless follow the directions because you believe that the doctor knows what s/he is talking about.
Ethos = an appeal to ethics Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say.
Pathos Pathos: Pathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy and empathy. Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos. Those who wish to persuade you will play with your emotions. They may persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy. Emotional connection can be created in many ways by a speaker, perhaps most notably by stories, but also anecdotes, analogies, similes, and metaphors is often to link an aspect of our primary message with a triggered emotional response from the audience.
Pathos = an emotional argument An effective use of pathos will alter the mindsets of the audience through the use of emotional appeal. Both words and pictures can achieve this appeal. In this picture, Haitian children are collecting water. Children and adults spend all day digging for water because most of Haiti does not have access to water.
Logos Logos means logic To make the audience think about what is presented to it Statistics, facts, authorities, etc… Very straightforward, and not “fluff”. It has a very scientific, factual approach. EFFECT: Evokes a cognitive, rationale response