2Introduction Why do students enjoy working in small groups? What kinds of small-group exercises can you using in your teaching?
3Objectives Select, plan, and facilitate group learning activities Create and facilitate a role playCreate and facilitate a case studyCreate and facilitate a clinical simulationFacilitate a brainstorming sessionFacilitate a discussion
4Group Learning Examples Prepare a role playReact to a case studyRespond to a clinical simulationBrainstormDiscuss
5Advantages of Group Learning Activities #1 Involve all studentsAllow students to interact, ask questions, and learn from one anotherGive students opportunities to identify, analyze, and solve problems
6Advantages of Group Learning Activities #2 Permit students to express their thoughts, opinions, and concernsProvide opportunities for practice in presenting information to a large groupHelp students explore and change attitudes
7Plan Group Learning Activities Activities should be challenging, interesting and relevantMake sure the activities support the objectivesDescribe the activity on paper, list the supplies you will need and consider the number of students and the space available
8Facilitating Group Learning Activities #1 Describe the activity before dividing the students into small groupsExplain how the group should record its decisionsSuggest how each group will report back to the larger group
9Facilitating Group Learning Activities #2 Instructions to the group (orally and on a flipchart, handout or transparency) usually include:The activity descriptionWhat the students will doTime limit
10Facilitating Group Learning Activities #3 Reporting options include:Oral reports from each groupResponses to questions about the activityRole plays developed and presented by students in the small groupsRecommendations from each group
11Role PlayA role play is a learning activity in which students play out roles in a simulated situation that relates to one or more learning objectives.
12Role Play Advantages #1Role plays encourage student participation and stimulate thinking.They motivate students by involving them in a realistic situation.Role plays help students understand another person’s perspective or situation.
13Role Play Advantages #2Role plays can inform, assess, and improve a variety of students’ skills and attitudes (communication and interpersonal skills needed to interview, counsel, and treat patients)Role plays give students opportunities to receive feedback on their performance in a safe setting
14Create a Role Play #1Decide what the students should learn (the objective)Select an appropriate situationIdentify the roles
15Create a Role Play #2 Determine if the role play will be: Informal – acting it out with little or preparation timeFormal – planned in advance with instructionsClinical demonstration – working with anatomic models and simulated patients
16Create a Role Play #3Determine if the students will report the results of their discussion of the role play in writing or orally to the entire group.In some cases, the role plays are done only in small groups. Then one or more groups may present theirs to the large group and/or the teacher will facilitate a discussion focusing on the role plays.
17Facilitate a Role Play #1 Explain the nature and purpose of the exercise (the objectives).Define the setting and situation of the role play.Brief the participants on their roles.
18Facilitate a Role Play #2 Explain what the other students should observe and what kind of feedback they should give.Provide the students with questions or activities that will help them to focus on the main concepts being presented.Keep the role play brief and to the point.
19Facilitate a Role Play #3 Engage students in a followup discussion.Provide feedback, both positive and suggestions for improvement.Summarize what happened in the session, what was learned, and how it applies to the skill being learned.
21Case StudyA case study is a learning activity that uses realistic scenarios focusing on a specific issue, topic, or problem.Students typically read, study, and react to the case study individually or in small groups.
22Possible Case Study Activities #1 Define the problem in the case study and develop suggestions for solutions.Respond to a clinical situation by suggesting appropriate interventions and discussing them.Evaluate clinical decisions and the process used to make the decision in the case study.
23Possible Case Study Activities #2 Identify the possible impact of choices or decisions made in the case study.Analyze the causes of a problem.Identify attitudes that may influence the healthcare providers’ behaviors described in the case study.
24Why Case Studies? Focus on real-life problems or situations Develop problem-solving and decision-making skillsStrengthen students’ ability to apply informationClarify and expand students’ knowledgeExplore and change attitudes
25Case Study AdvantagesActively involves students and encourages interaction.React to realistic and relevant cases that relate directly to the course and often to future work.Reactions often provide different perspectives and different solutions to problems.
26Create a Case Study #1Decide which objective the case study will help address, and decide what the students should learn from the case study.Identify the topic, issue, or problem on which the students will focus.Ensure that the case study presents a real situation.
27Create a Case Study #2Determine whether the case study will be completed by individuals or in small groups.Provide students with reaction activities that will guide them in completing the case study.Decide whether students will report the results of their work on the case study in writing or orally to the entire group.
28Facilitating a Case Study Provide clear directions, including how to complete the case study, how to present the answers, and the time limit or due date.If the students are working in groups, suggest that each group select someone to act as the recorder.
29Typical Reaction Exercises Analysis of the problemResponses to case study questionsProblem solutionsDiscussion of the responsesSummary of the key points
30Sample Case StudyLet’s look at Sample 7-2 on Page 7-11.
31Clinical SimulationA clinical simulation presents the learner with a carefully planned, simulated patient management situation.
32Types of Simulations Written simulations Role play simulations Mediated simulationsPhysical simulatorsLive simulated patients
33Why Clinical Simulations? Help students practice responding to emergency situations.Help students develop critical thinking skills.Assess students’ ability to integrate knowledge, skills, and attitudes into providing healthcare in a simulated setting.
34Clinical Simulation Advantages The same clinical simulation can be used repeatedly until the students master the situation it presents.Time can be shortened or lengthened in a clinical simulation.Clinical simulations can be tailored to specific instructional objectives.
35Creating a Clinical Simulation Define the objective of the clinical simulation and the expected outcome.Based on your objectives, prepare a case from your past experience that relates to the learning objectives.Create a patient scenario that includes the problem, the related lab and diagnostic results, and possible outcomes for different interventions.
36Present the Case #1Ask two or three students to prepare a case for presentation from their clinical experience.When it is time to present, have the students share the presenting complaint.Stop them, ask other students what they think the problem or diagnosis could be, and tell them to explain their answers.
37Present the Case #2Allow students to present additional relevant data.Stop, ask if they have changed their views, or what their next steps would be, and why.Continue this process of allowing information to be revealed in steps, and asking and responding to students’ answers.
38Conduct a Simulation with Models #1 Set up the area as realistically as possible.Present the initial information about the patient or the situation.A student then responds to that information and identifies what other information is needed.
39Conduct a Simulation with Models #2 Continue to provide pieces of information and ask questions of the students. “What would you do next?” “What information would you need now?” “Why did you make that decision?”Provide the student or students with feedback on their responses.
40Sample Clinical Simulation Let’s look at the Sample 7-4 on Page 7-22.
41BrainstormingBrainstorming is generating a list of ideas, thoughts, or alternative solutions that focus on a specific topic or problem.
42Why Brainstorming? Stimulate interest in a topic Encourage broad or creative thinking
43Advantages of Brainstorming Allows students to share their ideas without criticismAllows for creative thinkingGenerates ideasAllows for expressing opinions
44Facilitating Brainstorming #1 Share the objective of the brainstorming session.Explain the ground rules before beginning the session.All ideas will be acceptedDiscussions of suggestions are delayed until after the activityNo criticism of suggestions is allowed.
45Facilitating Brainstorming #2 State the topic or problem. Clearly state the focus of the brainstorming session.Maintain a written record on a flipchart or writing board of the ideas and suggestions.Provide opportunities for anonymous brainstorming by giving the students cards on which they can write their comments or questions.
46Facilitating Brainstorming #3 Involve all of the students and provide positive feedback in order to encourage more input.Review written ideas and suggestions periodically to stimulate additional ideas.Conclude brainstorming by summarizing and reviewing all of the suggestions.
47DiscussionA discussion is an opportunity for students to share their ideas, thoughts, questions, and answers in a group setting with a facilitator.
48Discussions Support Other Methods Conclude a presentationSummarize the main points of a videotapeCheck students’ understanding of a clinical demonstrationExamine alternative solutions to a case studyExplore attitudes exhibited during a role playAnalyze the results of a brainstorming session
49Discussion Advantages Provide a forum to discuss attitudesEmphasize key pointsCreate interest and stimulate thinking about a topicEncourage active participation
50Types of DiscussionsGroup discussion that focuses on the learning objectives (planned in advance).General discussion that addresses students’ questions about a learning topic.Panel discussion.
51Planning A DiscussionObjectives of this discussion? How long should it last?Students have some knowledge/experience with topic?Is there enough time available?Are you prepared to direct or control the discussion?
52Facilitating A Discussion #1 State the topic as part of the introduction.Shift the conversation to the students.Allow the group to direct the discussion; act as a referee and intercede only when necessary.Summarize the key points of the discussion periodically.
53Facilitating A Discussion #2 Ensure that the discussion stays on the topic.Use the contributions of each student and provide positive reinforcement.Encourage all students to get involved.Ensure that no one student dominates the discussion.
54SummaryWhat questions do you have regarding the use of case studies, role plays, clinical simulations, brainstorming and discussions?How can these teaching methods be used where there are large numbers of students?