Presentation on theme: "The Mongol empire p 317-318 The Mongols were nomads who lived in the steppes of Central Asia. They lived as pastoralists moving from place to another searching."— Presentation transcript:
The Mongol empire p 317-318 The Mongols were nomads who lived in the steppes of Central Asia. They lived as pastoralists moving from place to another searching for pasture for their goats & sheep which provided them with milk, meat, & leather for cloths. They were skilled horsemen & fierce warriors. Around 1200, Temujin united the Mongol clans & gained the title of Genghis Khan or universal ruler. Under his rule, the Mongols became a very powerful military machine that was highly mobile. Mongols used terror & brutality as psychological warfare against their enemies. Many surrendered to them without fight. Those who showed resistance were killed & their cities were burned. In their fights, they learned the art of siege warfare & the use of gunpowder. Such skills helped them take lands very quickly.
Genghis Khan’s empire was divided among his four sons after his death in 1227. Name the 4 Khanates (map key) Kublai Khan conquered Korea & North of China. Hulegu controlled Persia & Mesopotamia. Batu captured Russia, Ukraine, Poland, & Hungary. Millions of people were killed & entire cities were devastated. Japan, India, SE Asia, Western Europe escaped the Mongol wrath. The Mongols ruled their large empire peacefully. They tolerated local beliefs, protected the trade routes such as the Silk Roads & allowed local rulers to stay in power as long as they paid the tribute. During the period of Pax Mongolia (Mongol Peace), Chinese inventions spread westward and some Mongols in central Asia & Persia converted to Islam.
P318- In 1260, Kublai Khan became the Great Khan. In 1279, he defeated the last Song emperor in S.C. Kublai Khan created the Yuan dynasty & moved the capital from Mongolia to Beijing. He forbade the Mongols to marry, live, or mix with the Chinese. Chinese were not allowed to own weapons, serve in the Mongol army, and to hold high government posts simply because he distrusted them. He posted soldiers all over China to crush any possible rebellion. he imposed heavy taxes & used the Chinese as workers to build public projects such as roads & canals to improve the transportation of goods between north & south China. Such policies made many Chinese resent their new foreign rulers.
P319, 320-Kublai Khan increased foreign trade by welcoming foreign traders & building enormous ships to import & export goods. Marco Polo in China (what did he describe in his book ? why do modern historians question the reality of his trip to China ?) The Yuan dynasty weakened during the last part of Kublai Khan’s reign because of huge losses in Southeast Asia & 2 military defeats against Japan. Such failures combined with Chinese resentment of the Mongols, struggles over power among his successors, weak leadership, disastrous floods, & rising taxes led to rebellions. In 1368,the Mongols were defeated & forced to flee to Manchuria. The foreign rule over China ended.