6 The MongolsMongols were pastoral nomads who lived in north China steppe (area of dry grassland) along with Huns, Turks, & other tribes;Mongols used horses & raised cattle & sheep; were excellent warriors
10 The MongolsAround 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Genghis Khan (“universal ruler”) unified the Mongols under his leadership.For the next 21 years, he conquered much of Asia.
11 Genghis KhanGenghis Khan led a campaign of terror throughout Central Asia, destroying cities and slaughtering people.
12 Genghis Khan 3 factors that contributed to his success: Well-organized army with experienced fighters.Genghis Khan was able to outthink & outwit his enemies.Used cruelty as a weapon. It convinces others to surrender without a fight.
13 Genghis KhanHe died in 1227, but his successors continued to expand the empire.Under Genghis’s son and grandsons the Mongols conquered:Chinaparts of KoreaRussiathreatened Eastern Europe
15 The Mongol RulersIn 1260, the empire was divided into 4 areas called khanates:Mongolia and ChinaCentral AsiaPersiaRussia
16 The Mongol RulersThe rulers of these areas gradually adopted the culture of the people they ruled. (examples: West became Muslim, China took on Chinese culture)This contributed to the splitting of the empire.
17 Mongol Rulers Tolerant rulers in times of peace. Rarely imposed their beliefs on others.Imposed stability, law and order across Eurasia.
19 Pax Mongolica Means “Mongol Peace” The Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries throughout their empire.Trade between Europe and Asia was extremely active. Many Chinese innovations reach Europe for the 1st time.
20 Pax MongolicaSome historians also believe that the bubonic plague that devastated Europe in the 1300s was first spread by the Mongols through trade.
21 Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, took power in 1260. In 1279, Kublai Khan finally defeated the Chinese army and became the first foreigner to gain complete control of China.
22 Kublai KhanHe founded the Yuan dynasty that ruled China for about 100 years.His dynasty united China for the first time in several hundred years and opened China to trade with the west. (Making him one of China’s greatest emperors.)
23 Kublai KhanThe Mongols did not disrupt Chinese government or culture, they adopted it.Kublai Khan built a new capital city in Beijing. He enjoyed living the luxurious life of a Chinese emperor.
24 “I have heard that one can conquer the empire on horseback, but one cannot govern it on horseback.” - Kublai Khan’s Chinese Advisor
25 Kublai Khan’s EmpireMongols had little in common with their Chinese subjects.The Mongols kept separate identities, lived apart from the Chinese and obeyed different laws.
26 Kublai Khan’s EmpireMost high government positions went to Mongols or foreigners.The Mongols believed that foreigners were more trustworthy since they had no local loyalties.
27 Marco PoloThe most famous European foreigner to visit China during this time was a young Venetian trader , Marco Polo.
29 Marco PoloHe arrived at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275 and Polo ended up serving the Khan for 17 years.Kublai recognized his “merit and worth” and sent him on special missions around the empire.
30 Marco Polo Polo returned to Venice in 1292. During a war in Venice he was later captured and imprisoned. In prison, he told the full story of his travel and adventures in China.Fellow prisoners recorded his tales, workings of Kublai’s government and aspects of Chinese life in his book, The Travels of Marco Polo.
31 Marco PoloPolo described China’s fabulous cities, it fantastic wealth, and strange things he saw there.His book was an instant success in Europe, but many didn’t believe a word of it.
32 End of Mongol RuleIn the last years of Kublai Khan’s rule weakness began to appear.His armies and navies suffered defeats in their expansion efforts.Heavy spending on wars, public works, and luxuries created resentment among the overtaxed Chinese.
33 End of Mongol RuleKublai Khan died in After his death the Yuan dynasty began to fade.Succession issues caused conflict, 4 Khans in 8 years.Rebellions broke out in many parts of China.Economic problems and official corruption
34 End of Mongol RuleThe Chinese rebels finally overthrew the Mongols inThe Chinese founded the new Ming dynasty
35 Kublai Khan’s Legacy Kublai Khans’ Legacy: Rebuilt the Grand Canal. Because of the Pax Mongolica, foreign trade increased, which took Chinese products like printing, gun powder, paper money, the compass, and playing cards to Europe.He invited foreign merchants to visit China.