6The MongolsAround 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Genghis Khan (“universal ruler”) unified the Mongols under his leadership.For the next year, he conquered much of Asia.
7Genghis KhanFor the next 20 years, Genghis Khan led a campaign of terror throughout Central Asia, destroying cities and slaughtering people.
8Genghis Khan 3 factors that contributed to his success: Well-organized army with experienced fighters.Genghis Khan was able to outthink & outwit his enemies.Used cruelty as a weapon. It convinces others to surrender without a fight.
9Genghis KhanHe died in 1227, but his successors continued to expand the empire.Under Genghis’s son and grandsons the Mongols conquered:- China parts of Korea- Russia threatened Eastern Europe
12The Mongol RulersIn 1260, the empire was divided into 4 areas called khanates:- Mongolia and China- Central Asia- Persia- Russia
13The Mongol RulersThe rulers of these areas gradually adopted the culture of the people they ruled. (examples: West became Muslim, China took on Chinese culture)This contributed to the splitting of the empire.
14Mongol RulersTolerant rulers in times of peace. Rarely imposing their beliefs on others.Imposed stability, law and order across Eurasia.Provided safety and trade between Europe and Asia which led to the Pax Mongolica.
16Pax Mongolica Means “Mongol Peace” The Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries throughout their empire.Trade between Europe and Asia was extremely active. Many Chinese innovations reach Europe for the 1st time.
17Pax MongolicaSome historians also believe that the bubonic plague that devastated Europe in the 1300s was first spread by the Mongols.The disease might have traveled along trade routes to have been passed by infected Mongol troops.
19Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, took power in 1260. In 1279, Kublai Khan finally defeated the Chinese army and became the first foreigner to gain complete control of China.
20Kublai KhanHe founded the Yuan dynasty that ruled China for about 100 years.His dynasty united China for the first time in several hundred years and open China to trade with the west. (Making him one of China’s greatest emperors.)
21Kublai KhanThe Mongols did not disrupt Chinese government or culture, they adopted it.Kublai Khan adopted Chinese culture and built a new capital city in Beijing. He enjoyed living the luxurious life of a Chinese emperor.
22“I have heard that one can conquer the empire on horseback, but one cannot govern it on horseback.” - Kublai Khan’sChinese Advisor
23Kublai Khan’s EmpireMongol ways would not work in a sophisticated civilization like China.To rule his empire, Kublai Khan continued Chinese practices.v.
24Kublai Khan’s EmpireMongols had little in common with their Chinese subjects.The Mongols kept separate identities, lived apart from the Chinese and obey different laws.
25Kublai Khan’s EmpireThey kept the Chinese out of high government positions, but retained Chinese officials to serve locally.Most high positions went to Mongols or foreigners. The Mongols believed that foreigners were more trustworthy since they had no local loyalties.
26Marco PoloThe most famous European foreigner to visit China during this time was a young Venetian trader , Marco Polo.
28Marco PoloHe arrived at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275 and Polo ended up serving the Khan for 17 years. (Remember Kublai liked to give government positions to foreigners.)Kublai recognized his “merit and worth” and sent him on special missions around the empire.
29Marco Polo Polo returned to Venice in 1292. During a war in Venice he was later captured and imprisoned. In prison, he told the full story of his travel and adventures in China.Fellow prisoners recorded his tales, workings of Kublai’s government and aspects of Chinese life in his book, The Travels of Marco Polo.
30Marco PoloPolo described China’s fabulous cities, it fantastic wealth, and strange things he saw there.- He mentioned burning of “black stones” (coal) in Chinese homes.His book was an instant success in Europe, but many didn’t believe a word of it.
31End of Mongol RuleIn the last years of Kublai Khan’s rule weakness began to appear.His armies and navies suffered defeats in their expansion efforts.Heavy spending on wars, public works, and luxuries created resentment among the overtaxed Chinese.
32End of Mongol RuleKublai Khan died in After his death the Yuan dynasty began to fade.- Succession issues caused conflict, 4 Khans in 8 years.- Rebellions broke out in many parts of China.- Economic problems and official corruption.
33End of Mongol RuleThe Chinese rebels finally overthrew the Mongols in 1368.The Chinese founded the new Ming dynasty
34Kublai Khan’s Legacy Kublai Khans’ Legacy: Rebuilt the Grand Canal. Because of the Pax Mongolica, foreign trade increased, which took Chinese products like printing, gun powder, paper money, the compass, and playing cards to Europe.He invited foreign merchants to visit China.
35On a separate sheet of paper, Choose 1 of the following to complete: Write a paragraph comparing the rule of Genghis Khan and his grandson Kublai Khan.Create a poem (8-10 lines) about the fear of Genghis Khan.Draw and label a picture of something that you found significant in the notes on the Mongols today.