Presentation on theme: "Cell Reproduction Cells are constantly being replaced Chromosomes discovery, dark stained structures composed of DNA and proteins. The structure of the."— Presentation transcript:
Cell Reproduction Cells are constantly being replaced Chromosomes discovery, dark stained structures composed of DNA and proteins. The structure of the Eukaryotic chromosome. Chromatin is DNA wrapped around proteins called histones.
Viral Reproduction Virus composition Bacteriophage Original Bioengineers Nuclear material-DNA,RNA Protein Coat-disguise
Cell Cycle Sequence of growth and division of a cell. Interphase is the cells growth period where it spends most of its life G1 cell growth and protein production is high S the chromosomes are replicated G2 organelles that needed for cell reproduction gear up.
Cell Cycle G-1-cell grows, cell doubles in size, enzymes are produced in organelles, mitochondria, chloroplast duplicate. S-chromosomes replicate G-2-preparation for mitosis Mitosis –Prophase –Metaphase –Anaphase –Telophase
Cell Cycle G1 S G2 Mitosis Cytokinesis G1,S,G2 are all Interphase
Phases of Mitosis Size may be a trigger for beginning mitosis Prophase-chromosomes look hairy, chromosomes shorten and are called chromatids, nuclear membrane disappears Metaphase chromatids line up in the center of the cell. Anaphase chromatids race off to the poles of the cell Telophase the furrow or plate separates the cell. Cytokinesis-cytoplasm splitting
Control of the Cell Cycle Enzymes normally control the cell cycle Cancer are cells that reproduce out of control –Factors might include environmental, changes in enzyme production Problems that could possibly occur –Failure to produce enzymes –Overproduction of enzymes –Other enzyme production at the wrong time
Cell Limitations Cell size is limited 2 microns-several meters, so to 2-200 micrometers Diffusion limits cell size, normally fast and efficient, but with distance the speed and efficiency decreases rapidly DNA limits cell size heredity, information stored in the nucleus, protein information. Size of cell quickly determines how quickly proteins need to be released. Surface area to volume ratio-if size double the volume increases 4X. Cancers are cells that are growing out of control. Genes are segment of DNA that control production of certain specific proteins(enzymes).
Cancers Cancers are cells that are growing out of control. Tumor is a large mass of cells (cancerous) that are depriving other cells of nutrients and blood. Metastasis is new tumor forming that disrupts the functioning of that organ. –Causes Environmental, habitat, smoke, dust, water pollution, air pollution, UV light, prolonged exposure to certain compounds or minerals Genetic Viral infection, that damage genes
Cancer Prevention Healthy Lifestyle –Diet rich in fiber, low in fats (vitamins, minerals) – Exercise-Roman empire
C Words Cancer- Centrioles- Centromere- Centrosomes-. Chromatids- Chromatin- Chromosomes- Cytokinesis-
C Words Cancer uncontrolled cell division, cells reproducing out of control Centrioles are microtubules in animal cells that duplicate to form a spindle Centromere material that binds two sister chromatids together Centrosomes-Are both of the centrioles together. Chromatids-duplicate copies of chromosomes Chromatin-strands of DNA and proteins Chromosomes-strands of DNA and proteins that carry an organisms genetic information. Cytokinesis is the splitting of the cytoplasm