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The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell Cycle and Mitosis"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis
Cell Division The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

2 Why do cells divide? Growth Repair Reproduction

3 Chromosomes Carry genetic information from one generation of cells to the next Not visible in cells except in cell division

4 Cell Division Process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells
Before division, the cell replicates all its DNA Each daughter cell will get one complete set of genetic information

5 Cell Division- Prokaryotes
Binary fission: asexual cell division of prokaryotes that produces identical offspring Three Steps: DNA is copied Cells begin to divide Two identical cells

6 Binary Fission Bacterial cell dividing by binary fission
E. Coli dividing by binary fission

7 Cell Division- Eukaryotes
Nucleus first and then the Cytoplasm divides There are two kinds: Mitosis Meiosis Cell cycle: set of events making up the life of a cell; composed of interphase and cell division

8 The Cell Cycle

9 Interphase The time between cell divisions where the cell spends most of its life Cell is in a resting phase, performing cell functions Composed of G1, S and G2 phases

10 Interphase

11 Interphase: G1, S, G2 G1 (Gap 1)- Cells grow to mature size
S (Synthesis)- DNA is copied G2 (Gap 2)- cell organelles grow and prepare for division

12 Mitosis Division of nucleus
Daughter Cells wind up with the same # of chromosomes There are 4 phases: 1. prophase 3. anaphase 2. metaphase 4. telophase

13 Prophase Chromosomes become visible
Centrioles separate and move to opposite sides of nucleus Spindle fibers form

14 Prophase Nucleolus disappears
Nuclear Envelope breaks down and disappear Prophase is the longest phase of cell division

15 Prophase

16 Metaphase Chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate (middle of the cell) Chromosomes connect to spindle fibers at centromere Metaphase is the shortest phase

17 Metaphase

18 Anaphase Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
When chromatids separate, they are considered individual chromosomes.

19 Anaphase

20 Telophase Nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes
Chromosomes relax back into chromatin Spindle fibers disassemble. Cytokinesis begins

21 Telophase

22 Cytokinesis The process by which the cytoplasm divides and one cell becomes two individual cells Different in plants and animals Animals- cell pinches inward to form a cleavage furrow Plants- a cell plate forms between the two new cells forming a cell wall

23 Cytokinesis- Animal Cell

24 Cytokinesis- Plant Cell

25 Cytokinesis- Plant vs. Animal

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