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1 Review What are chromosomes Compare and Contrast How does the structure of chromosomes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 2 Review What happens during.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Review What are chromosomes Compare and Contrast How does the structure of chromosomes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 2 Review What happens during."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Review What are chromosomes Compare and Contrast How does the structure of chromosomes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 2 Review What happens during each of the four phases of mitosis- write one or two sentences about each Predict What do you think would happen if the spindle fibers were disrupted during metaphase

2 CH 10 CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION 10.2 The Process of Cell Division

3 Chromosomes  Carries and passes on genetic information from one generation to another  Each cell must copy its genetic information before cell division begins  Each daughter cell gets its own copy  Different organisms have different number of chromosomes.

4 Prokaryotic Chromosomes  Most prokaryotes contain a single, circular chromosome  Located in the cytoplasm (no nucleus).

5 Eukaryotic Chromosomes  Located in the nucleus  Made up of chromatin  DNA and histone proteins.

6 Eukaryotic Chromosomes  Chromatin is DNA and histone proteins.

7 Eukaryotic Chromosomes  DNA coils around histones to make nuclesome.

8 Eukaryotic Chromosomes  Nucleosomes coil and form supercoils that form chromosomes.

9 The Prokaryotic Cell Cycle  Regular pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division  Binary fission  Asexual reproduction  Two genetically identical cells are produced.

10 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle  G1, S, G2, and M  Interphase is G1, S, and G2.

11 G 1 Phase: Cell Growth  Cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles.

12 S Phase: DNA Replication  New DNA is synthesized (chromosomes are replicated).

13 G 2 Phase: Preparing for Cell Division  Organelles and molecules are produced.

14 M Phase: Cell Division  Mitosis  Division of the cell nucleus  Cytokinesis  Division of the cytoplasm.

15 Cell Structures Involved in Mitosis  Chromatid  Each strand of a duplicated chromosome  Centromere  Area where each pair of chromatids is joined  Centrioles  Tiny structures in cytoplasm of animal cells that help organize the spindle  Spindle  Fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromatids.

16 Mitosis  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase.

17 Prophase  Chromosome condense and become visible.

18 Prophase  Chromosome condense and become visible  Centrioles move to opposite sides.

19 Prophase  Chromosome condense and become visible  Centrioles move to opposite sides  The spindle forms.

20 Prophase  Chromosome condense and become visible  Centrioles move to opposite sides  The spindle forms  Nucleolus disappears and nuclear envelope breaks down.

21 Metaphase  Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.

22 Metaphase  Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell  Spindle fibers connect the centromere.

23 Anaphase  The chromatids separate  Chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends.

24 Telophase  Chromosomes arrive at poles  Nuclear envelope reforms  Spindle breaks apart.

25 Animal Cytokinesis  Cell membrane is drawn in until the cytoplasm is pinched into two equal parts containing its own nucleus and organelles.

26 Plant Cytokinesis  Cell plate forms between the divided nuclei  Forms into a cell membranes  Cell wall created between the membranes.

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