Presentation on theme: "Religions of South Asia Buddhism in the Subcontinent Buddhism has roots in northern India and Hinduism. It began as a reform movement within Hinduism."— Presentation transcript:
Buddhism in the Subcontinent Buddhism has roots in northern India and Hinduism. It began as a reform movement within Hinduism. Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, sought a new way of practicing religion.
Buddhism’s Hindu Origins The Buddha was born into the Kshatriya caste, and therefore he was born a Hindu. Some Hindus believe that the Buddha is an incarnation of the god Vishnu. Buddhism grew out of Hinduism --- therefore, there were many of the basic elements of Hinduism incorporated in Buddhism, however the Buddha also disagreed with many things of the Hindu religion. Elements KeptElements Rejected Reincarnation Samsara Karma Dharma Nirvana the Caste System Hindu Rituals Questions of Creation Language of Hinduism (Sanskrit) Endless rebirths the Idea of a Supreme God WHY DO YOU THINK BUDDHA WOULD REJECT THESE ELEMENTS?
THE CASTE SYSTEM: Buddha felt the Brahmin caste was too powerful and went against his notion of equality for all. Also, the Buddha believed that people were responsible for their own spiritual fulfillment rather than being told what to do by the Brahmins. HINDU RITUALS: Buddha saw offerings to gods, chants, sacrifices and Brahmins collection of money as insignificant and meaningless activities that dominated the religion. QUESTIONS OF CREATION: Buddha felt that the questions about creation were meaningless as they could not be answered and therefore, it was pointless to even try to answer such questions.
LANGUAGE OF HINDUISM: Besides the Brahmin caste, few Hindu’s actually understood the language of Sanskrit. Buddha spoke Pali, the language of the common people, making Buddhism accessible to all. ENDLESS REBIRTHS: Buddha believed that through self- effort, enlightenment could be achieved in one lifetime, regardless of one’s position in society. BELIEF IN A SUPREME GOD: Although Buddhism does not directly reject the idea of a supreme God, it is deemed irrelevant to the main goal of the religion. For a Buddhist their goal in life is to achieve happiness and therefore to end human suffering by following the Noble Eightfold Path.
Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born in NE India (Nepal). Raised in great luxury to be a king. At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs. Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana. Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
ENLIGHTENMENT NEW RELIGION After achieving enlightenment, Buddha wanted to share his experiences and insights with others and traveled to Benares and encountered five ascetics. Deer Park Sermon: outlined his enlightened thoughts and converted five ascetics as his first disciples Founded the SANGHA, the monastic brotherhood of Buddhism Argued that no rituals, gods or any type of outside power could save man. The only salvation lies in the realization of the Four Noble Truths and the diligent pursuit of the Eightfold Path Within years, Buddhist monasteries were emerging throughout India, establishing Buddhism as a religion The Buddha died in 486 BCE and achieved paranirvana (complete nirvana)
Attempts to give answers to life’s questionsAttempts to give answers to life’s questions Emphasis on “things to do” rather than “things to believe”Emphasis on “things to do” rather than “things to believe” Avoid speculative questions (creation, Supreme power, afterlife) since there was little possibility of definitive answers = instead spend time attempting to deal with the harsh realities presented by life here and nowAvoid speculative questions (creation, Supreme power, afterlife) since there was little possibility of definitive answers = instead spend time attempting to deal with the harsh realities presented by life here and now Tolerant to any religion that allows a person to find “truth” of himself/ herself. Believe that setting an example which others may emulate.Tolerant to any religion that allows a person to find “truth” of himself/ herself. Believe that setting an example which others may emulate. Overview: Sermon on the Mount
The Law of Cause and Effect: Buddhist believe that everything we do has an effect on us. They call this karma. If you are kind and helpful you will benefit. If you hurt others, you have to live with the consequences. Karma does not mean someone punishes you for doing wrong. It is a simple fact of life that you will suffer for doing wrong.The Law of Cause and Effect: Buddhist believe that everything we do has an effect on us. They call this karma. If you are kind and helpful you will benefit. If you hurt others, you have to live with the consequences. Karma does not mean someone punishes you for doing wrong. It is a simple fact of life that you will suffer for doing wrong. Furthermore, Buddhist do believe in Samara: reincarnation. How you live your life now (dharma) will effect who you will be in your next life.Furthermore, Buddhist do believe in Samara: reincarnation. How you live your life now (dharma) will effect who you will be in your next life. ULTIMATE GOAL= end suffering and attain absolute peace and joy through enlightment. This is called nirvana.ULTIMATE GOAL= end suffering and attain absolute peace and joy through enlightment. This is called nirvana. Overview: Sermon on the Mount
“Hold firm to the truth as a lamp and a refuge, and do not look for refuge to anything besides yourself. A monk becomes his own lamp and refuge by continually looking on his body, feelings, perceptions, moods and ideas in such a manner that he conquers the cravings and depressions of ordinary men and is always strenuous, self possessed, and collected in the mind. Whoever among my monks does this, either now or when I am dead, if he is anxious to learn, will reach the summit.”
WHAT IS HAPPINESS? WHAT MAKES ME HAPPY? WHAT MAKES OTHERS HAPPY? WHAT IS SUFFERING? IS SUFFERING AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF LIFE? HOW CAN WE GET RID OF SUFFERING?
Basic Buddhist Teachings The Buddha himself had experienced the extremes of constant pleasure and constant penance and neither had brought him true happiness or escape from suffering. This led the Buddha to Teach the Middle Way: all extremes are to be avoided, everything in moderation.
Four Noble Truths 1. Dukkha: Suffering Every being in the world is to suffer. By “suffering”, the Buddha meant not only physical and mental suffering but also the conflicts and breakdowns in our personal relationships, blocked creativity and the impermanence of all things.
Four Noble Truths 2. Samduaya: Cause of Suffering The cause of suffering is our selfish desires and believing that the “self” is real. It is greed and self- centeredness which bring about suffering. Desire is never satisfied.
Four Noble Truths 3. Nirodha: End of Suffering The Buddha said there was no such thing as the soul. Everything about you changes. You are never the same. When we say “I” we are talking about something that does not really exist. “I” is just a name for a collection of things that keep on changing. Therefore, our true happiness lies not in our selfish desires, which can never be satisfied, but in a life of compassion towards all creatures.
Four Noble Truths 4. Magga: The Eightfold Path By changing one’s thinking and behavior, a new wakening can be reached. This is called the Middle Way and can be followed in the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path 1. Right Understanding Accept the Four Noble Truths. Know and understand the Buddhist view of life. Annica= impermanence (world in constant flux) Dukkha= dissatisfaction (all humans and animals experience suffering) Anatta= no self (no separate, eternal unchanging self) DUKKHA ANATTA ANNICA
Eightfold Path 2. Right Thoughts Think good thoughts about others; not about doing harm.
Eightfold Path 3. Right Speech Do not say anything that would be hurtful to others.
Eightfold Path 4. Right Action Do not do anything that is harmful to yourself or others. Five Precepts 1.Abstain from killing or harming any living beings. 2.Abstain from stealing. 3.Abstain from improper sexual conduct. 4.Abstain from false speech. 5.Abstain from taking alcohol and harmful drugs.
Eightfold Path 5. Right Means of Livelihood Do not do jobs that hurt yourself or others.
Eightfold Path 6. Right Effort Always try to do right and avoid evil despite temptation.
Eightfold Path 7. Right Mindfulness Pay attention to what is being done at the moment despite distractions.
Eightfold Path 8. Right Concentration Concentrate on right goals through mediation.
What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! The Buddha said that when we accept the fact that there is no “I” we will become less self-centred. We will be less afraid of changing and less afraid of dying. As well, it will allow us to treat others better.
Eightfold Path Nirvana Nirvana is a state of being; it is not a place. It can be attained in this life and is complete at the time of death. Buddhist say that Nirvana is impossible to describe. They cannot explain what it is like, only what it is not like. It is not life and it is not death. It is a state where there is no suffering, greed or anger. It is freedom from the cycle of death and rebirth.
The Three Jewels I take refuge in the Buddha I take refuge in the dharma I take refuge in the sangha Buddha – guide Dharma – Eightfold path Sangha – community (teachers)
Buddhist Meditation “All that we are is the result of what we have thought: It is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him.” --- Gautama Buddha, Dhammapada
Buddhist Meditation What: calming of the mind, clearing it of bad thoughts that lead to hatred, greed and ignorance Who: Monks, nuns, and lay people. Why: Helps lead them to the final stage of Nirvana (Enlightenment) To aid them, Buddhist use many things to gain focus and to control the body and mind.
Buddhist Meditation 1. BODY: They sit in the lotus position. The back is straight, the tongue touches the back of the front teeth. They concentrate on their breathing.
Buddhist Meditation 2. HANDS: Mudras are hand gestures used in meditation. Mudras symbolize different states of mind. Peace Freedom Charity Knowledge
Buddhist Meditation 3. MIND: Mandals are a visual aid used for concentration. Mandals may be temporary (made with sand) or permanent (wall hangings). Looking at a mandal brings the viewer closer to enlightenment. They also recite or chant continously a single word or phrase, called a mantra. The most sacred sound, “Om”, has a Hindu origin an dis often part of a longer mantra “Om Mani Padme Hum” --- “the jewel in the lotus” or “the heart of the teaching”
Relieve Stress & Meditate: Get a Mandala! Ohm...mani...padme...hum... Hail to the jewel in the lotus!
Spread of Buddhism During Buddha’s lifetime, Buddhism gained a significant foothold in India During Buddha’s lifetime, Buddhism gained a significant foothold in India Emergence of hundreds of monasteries further spread the message of Buddha Emergence of hundreds of monasteries further spread the message of Buddha Expansion of Buddhism increased with the acceptance in 3 rd century BCE by India’s emperor AshokaExpansion of Buddhism increased with the acceptance in 3 rd century BCE by India’s emperor Ashoka Spread towards Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and LaosSpread towards Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos By 6 th century BCE, spread to Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan, KoreaBy 6 th century BCE, spread to Nepal, Sikkim, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan, Korea
Schools of Buddhism Sects emerged due to disputes over translation and interpretation of Buddha’s teachings, but share common belief of the Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path Sects emerged due to disputes over translation and interpretation of Buddha’s teachings, but share common belief of the Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path 1)Theravada or Hinayana: conservative, key virtue is wisdom and Buddha is revered as a teacher / saint (Burma, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia) 2)Mahayana: liberal, ideal is the bodhisattva who follows example of Buddha and remains in world to serve his fellows (China, Vietnam, Korea) 3)Vajrayana: Trantric Buddhism- emphasis on rituals, mantras and visual mandalas; Dalai Lama (god-kings) living incarnations of previous holy beings (Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal) 4)Zen Buddhism: emphasis on meditation to achieve inspiration (satori) which brings enlightenment; less emphasis on scripture, rituals, worship (Japan)
Zen Buddhism (a branch within Mahayana Buddhism) Zen Buddhism is found in Japan and comes from the word Chan = meditation. It values are: simplicity – do what you do at all times with simplicity, grace, and dignity. nature – nature is central; humans are are outgrowth of it. experience – focus on intuitive experiential understanding in life. discipline – do every task with the best effort and deliberateness. It goal is to achieve a sudden flash of insight called SATORI (wisdom). This is analogous to “enlightenment”. How does one achieve enlightenment? One can achieve enlightenment by mediating (Zazen) on phrases such as: Koan A Koan is a meditation saying. The sayings are intellectually stimulating and insightful but are unsolvable paradoxical problems. They move the person beyond rational thought to realize an answer in an intuitive way. Example: What is the sound of one hand clapping? What did your face look like before your parents were born? Haiku (three line, seventeen syllables) A Haiku is a poem used in meditation which have a focus on nature. Example: Where there are humans(good and evil are You will find flies part of human reality) And Buddhas Example: Borrowing my house(question our from insects, possessiveness) I slept
Vajrayana (conservative - liberal) Mahayana (liberal) Theravada (conservative) Tibet, Southwest China, Bhutan, Mongolia China, Japan, Tibet, Mongolia Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Stick to original teachings; add some (secret teachings) claiming that only they can understand them They accepted changes that were made to the religion after Buddha's death. They stick to the original teachings of the Buddha. They see Siddartha as the source of all wisdom and Budhahood. The Dalai Lama – a reincarnation of the Buddha of Compassion and is the spiritual leader of Tibet. They see Siddartha as one of many Buddhas. There are many incarnations of Buddhas coming back to the world to help people. They see Siddartha as the best Buddha that all of us should follow. There are no incarnations. Monks – and perhaps some “laity”, if they become monks. Anyone can achieve Nirvana; not just monks and nuns. Only monks and nuns can achieve Nirvana because they live monastic lives. WISDOM – through meditation wisdom and understanding are achieved COMPASSION - the main value is to help others. The best Buddha's are bodhisattva who have achieved enlightenment but come back to help other people achieve Nirvana. WISDOM - the main value is widsom. The monk experiences Nirvana fully when he/she dies. An arhat is a “worthy one” who has reached nirvana and is no longer available to followers. Fully accept.They accept prayer and rituals in their religion. They reject prayer and rituals. Branches of Buddhism Comparison
The 14 th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso aka Teshe Norbu meaning “Kundun- The Presence” Tenzin Gyatso aka Teshe Norbu meaning “Kundun- The Presence” Dalai Lama means “Ocean of Wisdom” Dalai Lama means “Ocean of Wisdom” Manifestation of the Bodhisattva of Compassion, Avalokiteshvara Manifestation of the Bodhisattva of Compassion, Avalokiteshvara Recognized at age 2 Recognized at age 2 Assumed full political power at age 16 Assumed full political power at age 16 Resides in Northern India leading organization called the Tibetan Government in Exile Resides in Northern India leading organization called the Tibetan Government in Exile Established educational, cultural and religious institutions to preserve Tibetan identity and heritage Established educational, cultural and religious institutions to preserve Tibetan identity and heritage Reputation as a scholar and man of peace Reputation as a scholar and man of peace Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1989
Impact of Buddhism Buddhism elevated the level of religious life and thought in most Asia Buddhism elevated the level of religious life and thought in most Asia Forced Hinduism to remedy some of its abuses and revitalize its teachings Forced Hinduism to remedy some of its abuses and revitalize its teachings Major effect upon philosophy, education, literature and art of south Asia, India (Gupta period), China (T’ang Dynasty) and Japan (Zen Buddhism) Major effect upon philosophy, education, literature and art of south Asia, India (Gupta period), China (T’ang Dynasty) and Japan (Zen Buddhism) However, many argue Buddhism has discouraged social progress (since it accepts life as full of suffering and does not produce a great concern or solutions regarding poverty, illiteracy, illness, pollution etc.) However, many argue Buddhism has discouraged social progress (since it accepts life as full of suffering and does not produce a great concern or solutions regarding poverty, illiteracy, illness, pollution etc.) Spread of Communism (Communist takeover of China in 1949) led to nationalization of monasteries and all revenues) > government in exile in Tibet Spread of Communism (Communist takeover of China in 1949) led to nationalization of monasteries and all revenues) > government in exile in Tibet
Religion or Philosophy? Religion Attempts to examine the meaning of life and universe Attempts to examine the meaning of life and universe Provides an ethical standard and an overall goal beyond this life Provides an ethical standard and an overall goal beyond this life Despite Buddha’s wishes, he was defied after his death by some of his followers Despite Buddha’s wishes, he was defied after his death by some of his followers Buddhism has taken on rituals, sacrifices, temple venerating the Buddha, elaborate scriptures and complex doctrines Buddhism has taken on rituals, sacrifices, temple venerating the Buddha, elaborate scriptures and complex doctrinesPhilosophy No sacrifices, worship, prayers, rituals No sacrifices, worship, prayers, rituals Rejected the principle of authority in religious matters Rejected the principle of authority in religious matters No god personified father figure who created and presided over the universe No god personified father figure who created and presided over the universe Buddha- not proclaimed as a god but stated that he was “awake” and could point the way for an individual towards salvation Buddha- not proclaimed as a god but stated that he was “awake” and could point the way for an individual towards salvation
Buddhist Symbols Wheel of Law (Dharma Wheel) This sign is associated with Buddha’s first sermon at a deer park. It is said that he used grains of rice to draw the symbol, Circle (wheel) = samsara (reincarnation) Eight Spokes = the eightfold path. Hub = one of the followings: Three Jewels of Buddhism (the Buddha, dharma, sangha) or Three causes of pain (serpent = ill will, pig = ignorance, rooster = lust).
Buddhist Symbols Lotus The lotus flower is meaningful because its roots are mired in the mud; yet its flowers bloom above water. This mirrors the life of Buddha who journeyed through a troubled world yet remained holy. Therefore, Buddha is often shown sitting on a lotus throne.
Buddhist Symbols Bodhi Tree The bodhi tree is where Siddhartha attained nirvana. Therefore it is a symbol associated with enlightenment. White Elephant Symbolizes the birth of Prince Siddhartha. The Prince’s mother, Queen Maya, dreamt that a bright elephant of light descended upon her --- a sign that her son would be great among men.
Buddhist Festivals Vesak Celebrates the birth, enlightenment and death of Siddhartha Gautama. People decorate statues of the Buddha, re-enact scenes from his life, and set off fireworks. Some people spend the day in meditation and reflection. Asalha Puja (Dharma Day) Marks the beginning of Buddha’s teaching. It is a day of showing thanks to the Buddha and other enlightened teachers for sharing their knowledge. Lay people may give up luxuries such as sweets, meat or alcohol to reinvigorate their spiritual practices. It is held at the beginning of the rainy season in Southeast Asia.
Buddhist Festivals Esala Perahera On a hillock near a lake in Kandy, Sri Lanka, there is a temple which houses one of the most sacred Buddhist relics: Buddha’s tooth. The tooth is kept hidden within seven jeweled caskets. But each year, on the full moon night in the month of August, a colourful procession transports Buddha’s tooth through the city. Pilgrims journey far distances to watch elephants, adorned with golden headdresses and silver jewels parade the streets. Aboard the largest elephant is a pagoda inside of which rests the casket holding Buddha’s tooth. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2GnsjrdZs0o
Buddhist Temples and Shrines Buddhist Temples and Shrines The Stupa The design of Buddhist temples originated with the stupa, which was used to cover Budha’s ashes and relics. Made out of mud bricks, originally shaped like a bell --- mound with a small spire on top. The circularity of the dome resembles the wheel of life. Inside are Buddhist relics.
Buddhist Temples and Shrines The Pagoda In China, the stupa grew taller and thinner and adopted a new identity; the pagoda. Eight-sided towers which contain an odd number of stories- between three and thirteen.
Buddhist Temples and Shrines Thai Temple Thailand Buddhist temples are called: wats. Colourful and exotic. Entrance faces east, decorated with curtains. Top is a towering pinnacle. Place of worship and community gathering. Shrine room housing an image of Buddha.
Buddhist Temples and Shrines The Monastery Provide shelter and study space for monks. Made out of stone or wood, and amazingly some were forged out of mountains rock. Designed the interior with an assembly hall, living quarters, and small stupa at the heart of the monastery.
Buddhist Temples and Shrines Theravadin Shrine Unadorned places of meditation. An elevated statue of Buddha surrounded by offerings of incense, candles, and flowers. A carpet decorates the floor. Meditation instructor sits in a chair at the foot of the rug.
Sacred Writings Tripitaka (Three Baskets) ~ almost 10 000 pages long and principal source for the life and teachings of Buddha ~ considered to be the most accurate of Buddha’s teachings which consist of: Vinaya- Pitaka: Basket of Discipline (rules for Sangha or monks) Vinaya- Pitaka: Basket of Discipline (rules for Sangha or monks) Sutta- Pitaka: Basket of Discourse (discourses between Buddha and his disciples = main body of Buddhist belief) Sutta- Pitaka: Basket of Discourse (discourses between Buddha and his disciples = main body of Buddhist belief) Abidhamma- Pitiaka: Basket of Further Teachings (views on the nature of the universe) Abidhamma- Pitiaka: Basket of Further Teachings (views on the nature of the universe)