Presentation on theme: "Buddhism An Introduction. Siddhartha Gautama There is much debate about the birth year of Siddhartha Gautama. – Some put the date around 624 BC – Some."— Presentation transcript:
Buddhism An Introduction
Siddhartha Gautama There is much debate about the birth year of Siddhartha Gautama. – Some put the date around 624 BC – Some religious historians put the date between 567 and 487 BC – More modern scholars place his birth between 502 and 420 BC – In short, no one really knows
Siddhartha Gautama Siddhartha was probably born in Kalinga (now Orissa) in India.
Siddhartha Gautama Siddhartha was born a member of the Śãkyas clan. – His father, Suddhodana, was king of the clan – His mother’s name was Maya – Siddhartha was sometimes known as Śãkyamuni, which means “Sage of the Śãkyas.” – He was born into the Kshatriya caste, the second highest level of the caste system.
Siddhartha Gautama It was assumed that Siddhartha would follow in his father’s role as king of the clan. – Siddhartha’s family was Hindu. – Astrologers predicted that he would be either a universal king or a great religious leader. – He was raised in luxury in the hope that he would choose the richness of life as a king.
Siddhartha Gautama At 16, Siddhartha was married to Yaśodharã. – When Siddhartha was 29, the couple had a son named Rãhula – At this point, Siddhartha took four journeys (some say these were, instead, four visions).
Siddhartha Gautama The four visions … – Siddhartha was deeply disturbed on seeing a helpless, frail old man – He saw a depressed man suffering from disease – He saw a grieving family carrying the body of a dead family member – He saw a serene man, an ascetic, leading a reclusive life of meditation
Siddhartha Gautama Making a choice – Siddhartha chose to follow the path of meditation and poverty to find a solution to human suffering – He left the luxuries of his home life, his wife and son, and the promise of leadership in his clan. – Siddhartha adopted the life of a wandering ascetic.
Siddhartha Gautama Things didn’t work out at first. – He tried meditation under two different teachers. – He was not satisfied, as he had to stop meditation without any solutions to the problems of suffering and death.
Siddhartha Gautama Things didn’t work out at first. – He joined a group of Brahmanists in the forest. – He practiced breath control and intense fasting for six years. – He was often at the brink of death. – He decided that neither extreme would bring him any closer to his goals.
Siddhartha Gautama Siddhartha’s realization – He chose to seek a middle path for solutions. – He realized that moderation and meditation would most likely lead him to the answers he sought.
Siddhartha Gautama Sitting under the Bodhi tree – Siddhartha, at the age of 35, sat under a tree and started meditating. – During his first night, he saw all of his previous incarnations. – In the second night, he saw how good or bad deeds led to their subsequent incarnations – On the third night, he progressed beyond himself, and attained enlightenment.
Siddhartha Gautama Nirvana – Nirvana is the state of being when there are no more reincarnations, a release from the constant birth, death, rebirth cycle. – Siddhartha took the title Buddha, or enlightened one. – He decided to take his teachings to others, and to spread his ideas about the middle path.
The Buddha The first sermon – The Buddha found some earlier companions and shared his visions with them. – After his second sermon they, too, achieved enlightenment.
The Buddha Teaching – The teachings of Buddha are known by the term Dharma – He established a system of monks and nuns to continue this teaching – Buddha continued teaching for 45 years, and had tens of thousands of followers. – At the age of 80, the Buddha died, naming no successor, as he felt his teachings would carry on for him.
Buddhism The teachings of Buddha – Get out your graphic organizer and follow along.
Buddhism – The Four Noble Truths All life is marked by suffering Suffering is brought about by desire By doing away with suffering one can gain a release to a state of peace & enlightenment, Nirvana One can achieve this goal by following the Eightfold Path
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Views
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Thinking
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Speech
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Actions
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Way of Life
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Endeavors
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Mindfulness
Buddhism – The Eightfold Path Right Meditation
Buddhism – By following Buddha’s teachings, or Dharma, the Buddhist religion has grown into the fourth largest religion in the world. – As there are with most religions, Buddhism has divided into different sects.
Buddhism The three main groups in Buddhism – Theraveda Buddhism – Mahayana Buddhism – Vajrayana Buddhism
Buddhism Theraveda Buddhism – Also known as Southern Buddhism – This branch of Buddhism is most prevalent in India and Southeast Asia – Monks are the primary teachers and leaders of Theraveda Buddhism – Meditation is reserved for the monks – Emphasis is on wisdom, scholarship, and intellectual training.
Buddhism Theraveda Buddhism – Worship by priests and monks centers around relics of the Buddha, and statues – Relics are kept in large buildings called Stupas
Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism – Also known as Northern Buddhism – Mahayana means “Greater Vehicle” – This branch of Buddhism is most prevalent in China, Japan, Korea, Russia, Nepal & Vietnam – Mahayana Buddhism was formed around 100 years after the death of Buddha – Meditation and practice is for everyone – Emphasis is on compassion and an end to world suffering
Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism – Goal of practice is to assist others in achieving Nirvana, and to end suffering for all – To be a Bodhisattva is to be destined for enlightenment – One form of Mahayana Buddhism in Japan is Zen – Mahayana Buddhism is the most widely practiced form of Buddhism in the US and the western world.
Buddhism Vajrayana Buddhism – Mostly, this is Tibetan Buddhism – Vajrayana Buddhists feel they practice a higher form of Buddhism – The practice includes chanting, prayer wheels, yoga, and mandalas – This branch emphasizes the relationship between a student and his guru, or teacher – Since the 11 th century, the leader of the Vajrayana Buddhists is the Dalai Lama
Buddhism Vajrayana Buddhism
Buddhism Buddhism today – There are approximately 360,000,000 Buddhists in the world today. – These are divided into about 56% Mahayana, 38% Theraveda, and 6% Tibetan. – There are 3-4 million practicing Buddhists in the US