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Introduction to Earth Science Scientific Method & the Metric System Introduction to Earth Science Scientific Inquiry and the Nature of Technology
What is Science? A way of: –Learning about the natural world –Exploring problems and answering questions about the natural world The goal is to understand the world around us
Thinking like a Scientist Observing – Using one or more of your senses to gather information (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell) Qualitative observations- use senses Quantitative observations- include numbers, often use tools Inferring –Explaining or interpreting things you observe –Doesn’t mean guessing wildly –Based on reasoning from what you already know
Still Thinking Like a Scientist Predicting – Making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence Scientific Attitudes – Includes curiosity, honesty, open-mindedness, skepticism, and creativity
Scientific Inquiry Refers to the ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Posing Questions- Often begins with a problem or question about an observation
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Developing a Hypothesis – A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific questions –Must be testable –Investigations and evidence will either support or disprove
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Designing an Experiment 1.Controlled experiment – a test of a hypothesis under conditions established by the scientist 2.Variable – one of the factors that can change in an experiment a)Manipulated variable – The variable that the scientist changes b)Responding variable – The variable that changes because of the manipulated variable
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Collecting and Interpreting Data Data – The facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations After data has been collected it needs to be interpreted –Graphs can help with interpreting data by revealing patterns and/or trends
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Drawing Conclusions – A conclusion is a decision about how to interpret what you learned from an experiment Conclusions may: –Support a hypothesis –Show a hypothesis to be incorrect –Need more data before conclusions can be reached *Not always the endpoint…results often lead to new questions, new hypotheses, and new experiments
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Communicating Results – The sharing of ideas and experimental findings with others through writing and speaking
Scientific Theories and Laws Scientific Theory – A well tested scientific concept that explains a wide range of observations –Has withstood repeated tests –Will be changed or abandoned if tests fail to support
Scientific Theories and Laws Scientific Law – A statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions –Describes an observed pattern in nature but does not provide an explanation for it
Earth Science Earth Science – Deals with the study of the Earth, its history, changes, and its place in the Universe Three guiding ideas: 1.Structure of the Earth System Made up of four spheres Lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere 2.Earth History- constructive and destructive forces have changed the Earth’s surface over its 4.6 billion year history 3.Earth in the Solar System
Branches of Earth Science Geology – Study of the solid Earth and the forces that shape it over time Oceanography – Study of the Earth’s oceans Meteorology – Study of the Earth’s atmosphere and the weather occurring there Astronomy - Study of the Universe beyond Earth Environmental Science – Studies Earth’s environment and resources, looking at the effects of human activity
Nature of Technology What is Technology? –Technology is how people change the world around them to meet their needs or to solve practical problems –The goal of technology is to improve the way people live –New technologies change society by changing how people live
Major Areas of Technology Manufacturing technology Communication technology Transportation technology Construction technology Energy & Power technology Biological & Chemical technology
How Science Relates to Technology Science is the study of the natural world Technology aims to change or modify the natural world to meet human needs or solve problems
How Science Relates to Technology People who develop technology are called engineers, not scientist An engineer is trained to use both technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems Scientist use scientific inquiry when looking for answers, while engineers use the engineering design process to solve problems
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