3Personality and Traits Traits are distinguishing personal characteristics.Why are some people outgoing and others shy, loud and quiet, warm and cold, aggressive and passive? This list of behaviors is made up of individual traits.
4Personality and Traits Personality is a combination of traits that classifies an individual’s behavior.Personality also influences the decisions we make.Understanding people’s personalities is important because personality affects behavior as well as perceptions and attitudes.Knowing personalities helps you to explain and predict others’ behavior and job performance.
5Big Five Model of Personality The Big Five Model of Personality categorizes traits into the dimensions of:Surgency,Agreeableness,Adjustment,Conscientiousness, andOpenness to experience.
6The Big Five Model of Personality SurgencyAgreeablenessAdjustmentConscientiousnessOpenness toexperience
7Big Five Model of Personality The surgency (most commonly called dominance) personality dimension includes leadership and extraversion traits.People strong in surgency personality traits want to be in charge.Their dominant behavior ranges from interest in getting ahead and leading through competing and influencing.People weak in surgency want to be followers, and don’t want to compete or influence.
8Big Five Model of Personality The agreeableness personality dimension includes traits related to getting along with people.Agreeable personality behavior is strong when a person is called warm and caring, easygoing and compliant, compassionate and gentle, friendly, and sociable;It is weak when a person is called cold, difficult, uncompassionate, unfriendly, and unsociable.Strongly agreeable personality types are sociable, spend most of their time with people, and have lots of friends.
9Big Five Model of Personality The adjustment personality dimension includes traits related to emotional stability.Adjustment is on a continuum between being emotionally stable and unstable. Stable refers to self-control, being calm—good under pressure, relaxed, secure, and positive, praising othersunstable (also called neuroticism) is out of control—poor under pressure, nervous, insecure, negative, and hostile, criticizing others.
10Big Five Model of Personality The conscientiousness personality dimension includes traits related to achievement.Conscientiousness is also on a continuum between responsible/dependable to irresponsible/undependable.Other traits of high conscientiousness include credibility, conformity, and organization.
11Big Five Model of Personality The openness-to-experience personality dimension includes traits related to being willing to change and try new things.They are imaginative, nonconforming, unconventional, and autonomous, while those with a weak openness dimension avoid change and new things.
12Big Five Model and Leadership Researchers conducted a major meta-analysis combining 73 prior studies to correlate the Big Five personality dimensions with leadership.The highest correlation with leadership was surgency, followed by concensiousness and openness to experience .Agreeableness was weakly correlated, and adjustment was negatively correlated with leadership.In other words, people high in surgency are perceived as leader like—they work hard, and they bring about change. They are not too concerned about being well-liked and trying to please everyone, and they are stable or not overly emotional.
133.Betrayed personal trust 1.Bullying style2.Cold, aloof, arrogant3.Betrayed personal trust4.Self-centered5.Specific performanceproblems6.OvermanagedUse this space for overall reminders or special tips linked to the slide or occassion. Simply select this text and replace it with your own reminders.6MajorReasonsforExecutiveDerailmentSummaryHeading. Text.2-13
149 Traits of Effective Leaders Locus ofControlIntegrityUse this space for overall reminders or special tips linked to the slide or occassion. Simply select this text and replace it with your own reminders.High energyFlexibility9Traits ofEffectiveLeadersDominanceSensitivityto othersSummaryHeading. Text.Self-confidentIntelligenceStability
15Traits of Effective Leaders Dominance is one of the two major traits of the surgency Big Five, and it is correlated with leadership.18 Successful leaders want to be managers and to take charge.Leaders have high energy with a positive drive to work hard to achieve goals. They focus on the positive and have stamina and tolerate stress well. Their optimism shapes their decisions to lead
16Traits of Effective Leaders Self-confidence, can be strong to weak, indicates whether you are self- assured in your judgments, decision making, ideas, and capabilities. Leaders display self-assurance about their abilities and foster confidence among followers.
17Traits of Effective Leaders Locus of control is on a continuum between external and internal belief in control over one’s destiny.Externalizers believe that they have no control over their fate and that their behavior has little to do with their performance. They generally have lower levels of performance.Internalizes (leaders) believe that they control their fate and that their behavior directly affects their performance.
18Traits of Effective Leaders Stability is associated with managerial effectiveness and advancement. Being too emotional can cause problems. Stable leaders are emotionally in control of themselves. They don’t let their anger have negative outcomes.Integrity refers to behavior that is honest and ethical, making a person trustworthy. Integrity is the opposite of seeking self-interest at the expense of others; it’s about being honest—no lying, cheating, or stealing
19Traits of Effective Leaders Intelligence refers to cognitive ability to think critically, to solve problems, and to make decisions. It is also referred to as general mental ability. Intelligence is the best predictor of job performance. The manager’s job calls for a high degree of intelligence, and leaders generally have above-average intelligence.
20Traits of Effective Leaders Emotional Intelligence- refers to the ability to do such things as understand one’s feelings, have empathy for others, and regulate one’s emotions to enhance one’s quality of life.Daniel Goleman’s research discovered that the most effective leaders are alike in one essential way: they all have a high degree of emotional intelligence.Four Key Factors in EI:1. Self-awareness2. Self-management3. Social-awareness4. Relationship management
21Traits of Effective Leaders Flexibility refers to the ability to adjust to different situations. Recall that leaders who set objectives and possess the ability to influence others bring about change.Sensitivity to others refers to understanding group members as individuals, what their positions on issues are, and how best to communicate with and influence them. To be sensitive to others requires EI. Lack of sensitivity is part of the reason for executive derailment.
22Personality Profile of Effective Leaders Effective leaders have specific personality traits.McClelland’s trait theories of Achievement Motivation Theory and Leader Motive Profile Theory have strong research support and a great deal of relevance to the practice of leadership.
23Achievement Motivation Theory The late David McClelland developed the theory in the 1940s.This theory attempts to explain and predict behavior and performance based on a person’s need for achievement, power, and affiliation.McClelland believed that we have needs and that our needs motivate us to satisfy them. Our behavior is thus motivated by our needs. However, McClelland says this is an unconscious process.
24Achievement Motivation Theory The Need for Achievement (n Ach) The need for achievement is the unconscious concern for excellence in accomplishments through individual efforts. People with strong n Ach tend to have an internal locus of control, self-confidence, and high energy traits.They are goal oriented and set moderate, realistic, attain- able goals. They seek challenge, excellence, and individuality; take calculated, moderate risk; desire concrete feedback on their performance; and work hard.
25Achievement Motivation Theory The Need for Power (n Pow) is the unconscious concern for influencing others and seeking positions of authority. People with strong n Pow have the dominance trait and tend to be self-confident with high energy.The want to control the situation, want to influence or control over others, enjoy competition in which they can win (they don’t like to lose).They are willing to confront others, and seeking positions of authority and status.
26Achievement Motivation Theory The Need for Affiliation (n Aff) is the unconscious concern for developing, maintaining, and restoring close personal relationships.People with strong n Aff have the trait of sensitivity to others.They are characterized as seeking close relationships with others, wanting to be liked by others, enjoying lots of social activities, and seeking to belong; so they join groups and organizations.
27Leader Motive Profile Theory Leader Motive Profile Theory attempts to explain and predict leadership success based on a person’s need for achievement, power, and affiliation.McClelland found that effective leaders consistently have the same motive profile, and that Leader Motive Profile has been found to be a reliable predictor of leader effectiveness.The Leader Motive Profile (LMP) includes a high need for power, which is socialized; that is, greater than the need for affiliation and with a moderate need for achievement.
28Leader Motive ProfilePower is essential to leaders because it is a means of influencing followers. Without power, there is no leadership.McClelland further identified power as neither good nor bad.It can be used for personal gain at the expense of others (personalized power), orit can be used to help oneself and others (socialized power)
29Few more words on Power: Much maligned wordPower is the fuel of accomplishmentLeadership = PowerSocialized Power: Used for the good of one’s self, the group, and the organizationPersonalized Power: Used for selfish reasons and contrary to the good of the group and organization
30Leader Motive Profile Achievement To be effective, leaders generally need to have a moderate need for achievement. They have high energy, self-confidence, and openness-to-experience traits.AffiliationEffective leaders have a lower need for affiliation than power, so that relationships don’t get in the way of influencing followers.
31The Pygmalion EffectThe Pygmalion effect proposes that leaders’ attitudes toward and expectations of followers, and their treatment of them, explain and predict followers’ behavior and performance.Lou Holtz advises setting a higher standard; the worst disservice you can do as a coach, teacher, parent, or leader is to say to your followers, “I don’t think you are capable of doing very much—so I’m going to lower the standard,” or just to do it without saying anything
32you can; if you think you can’t, you can’t.” The Pygmalion EffectIn other words:“If you think you can,you can; if you think you can’t, you can’t.”
33Self-ConceptRefers to the positive or negative attitudes people have about themselvesSelf-efficacy is the belief in one’s own capability to perform in a specific situationBoth are closely related to self-confidence, the belief that one can be successful
34Developing a More Positive Attitude and Self-concept Consciously try to have and maintain a positive, optimistic attitude.Realize that there are few, if any, benefits to negative, pessimistic attitudes about others and yourself.Cultivate optimistic thoughts.If you catch yourself complaining or being negative in any way, stop and change to a positive attitude.Avoid negative people, especially any that make you feel negative about yourself.Set and achieve goals.
35Developing a More Positive Attitude and Self-concept Focus on your success; don’t dwell on failure.Accept compliments.Don’t belittle accomplishments or compare yourself to others.Think for yourself.Be a positive role model.When things go wrong and you’re feeling down, do something to help someone who is worse off than you.
36Leadership Styles Based on Attitudes Theory Y AttitudesTheory X AttitudesPositive self-conceptGives and accepts positive feedbackExpects others to succeedLets others do the job their wayBossy, pushy, andimpatientCriticalAutocraticNegative self-conceptAfraid to make decisionsUnassertiveSelf-blamingPessimisticPromotes hopelessness
37Ethics Are the standards of right and wrong that influence behavior Right behavior is considered ethicalWrong behavior is considered unethicalBusiness ethics, and ethics codes, guide and constrain everyday business conduct
38Ethics and Leadership Does Ethical Behavior Pay? Generally, the answer is yes. Research studies have reported a positive relationship between ethical behavior and leadership effectiveness.76 It pays to be ethical.A second factor affecting ethical behavior is moral development, which refers to understanding right from wrong and choosing to do the right thing.Our ability to make ethical choices is related to our level of moral development.86 There are three levels of personal moral development
39Ethics and LeadershipEthics are the standards of right and wrong that influence behavior. Right behavior is considered ethical, and wrong behavior is considered unethicalEthics is so important that some large organizations have ethics officers who are responsible for developing and implementing ethics codes.
40Moral DevelopmentMoral Development refers to understanding right from wrong and choosing to do the right thing.Our ability to make ethical choices is related to our level of moral development.There are three levels of personal moral development
41Moral Development3. Post-conventional behavior is motivated by universal principles of right and wrong, regardless of the expectations of the leader or group.“I don’t lie to customers because it is wrong.”2. Conventional behavior is living up to expectations of acceptable behavior defined by others motivates behavior to fulfill duties and obligations.“I lie to customers because the other sales reps do it too.”Pre-conventional Self-interest motivates behavior to meet one’s own needs to gain rewards while following rules and being obedient to authority to avoid punishment.“I lie to customers to sell more products and get higher commission checks.”
42How People Justify Unethical Behavior Moral justification is the process of reinterpreting immoral behavior in terms of a higher purpose.Displacement of responsibility is the process of blaming one’s unethical behavior on others.Diffusion of responsibility is the process of the group using the unethical behavior with no one person being held responsible.Advantageous comparison is the process of comparing oneself to others who are worse.
43How People Justify Unethical Behavior Disregard or distortion of consequences is the process of minimizing the harm caused by the unethical behavior.Attribution of blame is the process of claiming the unethical behavior was caused by someone else’s behavior.Euphemistic labeling is the process of using “cosmetic” words to make the behavior sound acceptable.
44Golden Rule“Do unto others as you want them to do unto you.” OR “Don’t do anything to other people that you would not want them to do to you.”
45What Does It Take to Be an Ethical Leader? Courage!An ethically courageous leader must:Focus on a higher purposeDraw strength from othersFamily and friendsTake risks without fear of failureWe all fail sometimesUse frustration and anger for goodTake action to stop unethical behavior
46Four-Way Test of Ethical Behavior Is it true?If it fair?Will it build good will?Will it benefit all concerned?When making your decision, if you can answer yes to these four questions, it is probably ethical.