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Chapter One Applying Psychology to Teaching
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-2 Overview What is educational psychology? How will learning about educational psychology help you be a better teacher? The nature and values of science Complicating factors in the study of behavior and thought processes Good teaching is partly an art and partly a science Reflective teaching: A process to help you grow from novice to expert
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-3 What is educational psychology? Educational psychology is … “A scientific discipline that is concerned with understanding and improving how students acquire a variety of capabilities through formal instruction in classroom settings” (p. 4).
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-4 How Will Learning About Educational Psychology Help You Be a Better Teacher? Teaching is a complex enterprise –Educational psychology provides information about a wide range of knowledge and skills Research that informs teachers –Educational psychology offers useful and tested ideas for improving instruction Coursework and competence –Educational psychology helps prepare teachers to be effective
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-5 Teaching is a Complex Enterprise Professional teaching standards have been developed and are based on five propositions: –Teachers are committed to students and their learning. –Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students. –Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning. –Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience. –Teachers are members of learning communities. (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 1994)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-6 Research in Educational Psychology Informs Teaching Examples: –Use more advanced students to tutor less advanced students –Give positive reinforcement and corrective feedback to students –Communicate to students about expectations –Require students to respond to higher-order questions –Provide students with cues about the upcoming tasks –Teach students how to monitor and improve their own learning efforts –Know students’ misconceptions –Create learning situations where students customize information and problems for themselves –Accept responsibility for student outcomes –Show students how to cooperate
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-7 The Nature and Values of Science Unsystematic observation Vs. Systematic observation
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-8 Complicating Factors in the Study of Behavior and Thought Processes The limited focus of research Debates about which type of research is most useful Individual differences in perception and thinking Selection and interpretation of data New findings mean revised ideas
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-9 Good Teaching is Partly an Art and Partly a Science Teaching as an art –Beliefs, emotions, values, flexibility Teaching as a science –Usable body of research findings
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-10 Reflective Teaching Reflective teachers possess: –An introspective orientation –An open-minded but questioning attitude about educational theories and practices –The willingness to take responsibility for your decisions and actions
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1-11 Ways to Become a Reflective Teacher Use the Suggestions for Teaching from each chapter to gather ideas. Try the Suggestions out in your teaching. Use the Journal Entries from each chapter to help guide observation notes of yourself and your students. Analyze the observation notes for strengths and weaknesses. After each teaching episode, think about and/or write down an assessment of how you did.
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