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© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Educational Psychology Fourth Edition by John W. Santrock PowerPoint Presentation to accompany.

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1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Educational Psychology Fourth Edition by John W. Santrock PowerPoint Presentation to accompany

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 C H A P T E R 1 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Learning Goals 1. Describe some basic ideas about the field of educational psychology. 2. Identify the attitudes and skills of an effective teacher. 3. Discuss why research is important to effective teaching and how educational psychologists and teachers can conduct and evaluate research.

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Exploring Educational Psychology Teaching: Art and Science Historical Background

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Educational Psychology… is a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings.

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Historical Background of Ed Psych William James John Dewey E. L. Thorndike

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. William James ( ) Emphasized the importance of observing teaching and learning in the classroom for improving education

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. John Dewey ( ) Viewed the child as an active learner Emphasized the childs adaptation to the environment Pushed for competent education for all children

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. E. L. Thorndike ( ) Initiated an emphasis on assessment and measurement of learning Promoted the idea that educational psychology must have a scientific base and that measurement should be a central focus

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Educational Psychologys Historical Background Leta Hollingworth (1916) - First to use the term gifted to describe students who scored exceptionally high on IQ tests. George Sanchez (1932) - Researcher who demonstrated that intelligence tests were culturally biased against minority children. Mamie and Kenneth Clark (1939) - Pioneering researchers who studied African American childrens self-conceptions and identity.

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Behavioral Approach B.F. Skinner (1938) Psychology as the science of observable behavior and controlling conditions 1950s programmed learning

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Cognitive Revolution 1950s Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills 1980s Cognitive Psychology memory, thinking, reasoning – to help student learn

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Teaching as Art & Science How is teaching both art and science?

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Effective Teaching Commitment and Motivation Professional Knowledge and Skills

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reflection & Observation Reflection: What were the characteristics of the most effective teachers in your educational experience?

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Effective Teaching Professional Knowledge and Skills Effective Teachers: Exhibit subject matter competence Implement appropriate instructional strategies Set high goals for themselves and students and plan for instruction Create developmentally appropriate instructional materials and activities Manage classrooms for optimal learning Cont…

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Effective Teachers: Use effective strategies to promote students motivation to learn Communicate well with students and parents Pay more than lip service to individual variations Work effectively with students from culturally diverse backgrounds Have good assessment skills Integrate technology into the curriculum Effective Teaching Professional Knowledge and Skills

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Effective Teachers: Have a good attitude Care about students Invest time and effort Bring a positive attitude and enthusiasm to the classroom Effective Teaching Commitment and Motivation

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Best Teachers

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Worst Teachers

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Research in Educational Psychology Why Research Is Important Program Evaluation Research, Action Research, and the Teacher-as- Researcher Research Methods

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Why is educational psychology research important?

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The scientific research approach is objective, systematic, and testable. STEP 1 Conceptualize the Problem STEP 2 Collect Information STEP 3 Draw Conclusions STEP 4 Revise Research Conclusions & Theory The Scientific Research Approach

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Research Methods Descriptive Research Observations Laboratory Naturalistic observation Participant observation Interviews and questionnaires Standardized tests Cont…

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Research Methods Descriptive Research Case studies Ethnographic Studies Focus Groups Personal Journals and Diaries

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Correlational Research Measures the strength of a relation between two variables Does NOT establish causal relation Experimental Research Random assignment Experimental vs. control groups Independent vs. dependent variables Research Methods

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Possible Explanations of Correlational Data Observed correlation Possible explanations for this correlation As permissive teaching increases, childrens self-control decreases As permissive teaching increases, childrens self-control decreases Permissive teaching Childrens lack of self-control Childrens lack of self-control Childrens lack of self-control Permissive teaching causes Other factors, such as genetic tendencies, poverty, or sociohistorical circumstances Permissive teaching cause both Childrens lack of self-control and

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Experimental Research Independent variable: The manipulated, influential experimental factor. Dependent variable: The factor that is measured in an experiment. Control group: A comparison group, no manipulation. Experimental group: The group whose experience is manipulated. Random assignment: Participants are assigned by chance.

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. A study of the effects of time management on students grades Participants randomly assigned to experimental and control groups Students grades in school Experimental Group (time management program) Control Group (no time management program) Experimental Research

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Time Span of Research Studying groups of people at one time Researcher doesnt have to wait until subjects grow older Provides no information about the stability of data over time Studying the same individuals over time Evaluates how children change over time Time consuming and costly Cross-sectionalLongitudinal

31 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Program Evaluation: Designed to make decisions about a particular program. Action Research: Used to solve a particular classroom or school problem. Teacher-As-Researcher: Teachers conduct their own studies to improve their teaching. Program Evaluation, Action Research, and Teacher-As-Researcher

32 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Enter the Debate Should teachers conduct research using their students as subjects? YESNO

33 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Crack the Case The Case of the Curriculum Decision 1. What issues would need to be considered in conducting such a study? 2. What type of research would be most appropriate? Why? 3. If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the independent variable be? Cont...

34 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4. If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the dependent variable be? 5. How should Ms. Huang go about conducting her study? Crack the Case The Case of the Curriculum Decision


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