Presentation on theme: "Educational Psychology Fourth Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Educational Psychology Fourth Edition PowerPoint Presentationto accompanyEducational Psychology Fourth Editionby John W. Santrock
2 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching C H A P T E R 1Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching
3 Learning GoalsDescribe some basic ideas about the field of educational psychology.Identify the attitudes and skills of an effective teacher.Discuss why research is important to effective teaching and how educational psychologists and teachers can conduct and evaluate research.
4 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Exploring Educational PsychologyTeaching: Artand ScienceHistoricalBackground
5 Educational Psychology… is a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings.
6 Historical Background of Ed Psych 18501875190019251950William JamesJohn DeweyE. L. Thorndike
7 William James ( )Emphasized the importance of observing teaching and learning in the classroom for improving education
8 John Dewey (1859-1952) Viewed the child as an active learner Emphasized the child’s adaptation to the environmentPushed for competent education for all children
9 E. L. Thorndike ( )Initiated an emphasis on assessment and measurement of learningPromoted the idea that educational psychology must have a scientific base and that measurement should be a central focus
10 Educational Psychology’s Historical Background Leta Hollingworth (1916) - First to use the term gifted to describe students who scored exceptionally high on IQ tests.George Sanchez (1932) - Researcher who demonstrated that intelligence tests were culturally biased against minority children.Mamie and Kenneth Clark (1939) - Pioneering researchers who studied African American children’s self-conceptions and identity.
11 Behavioral Approach B.F. Skinner (1938) Psychology as the science of observable behavior and controlling conditions1950s programmed learning
12 The Cognitive Revolution 1950s Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills1980s Cognitive Psychology memory, thinking, reasoning – to help student learn
13 Teaching as Art & Science How is teaching both art and science?
14 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching ProfessionalKnowledge andSkillsCommitment andMotivation
15 Reflection & Observation What were the characteristics of the most effective teachers in your educational experience?This slide accompanies the video segment, Observing Effective Teaching, on the McGraw-Hill DVD Teaching Stories: A Video Collection for Educational Psychology.
16 Effective Teaching Professional Knowledge and Skills Effective Teachers:Exhibit subject matter competenceImplement appropriate instructional strategiesSet high goals for themselves and students and plan for instructionCreate developmentally appropriate instructional materials and activitiesManage classrooms for optimal learningCont…
17 Effective Teaching Professional Knowledge and Skills Effective Teachers:Use effective strategies to promote students’ motivation to learnCommunicate well with students and parentsPay more than lip service to individual variationsWork effectively with students from culturally diverse backgroundsHave good assessment skillsIntegrate technology into the curriculum
18 Effective Teaching Commitment and Motivation Effective Teachers:Have a good attitudeCare about studentsInvest time and effortBring a positive attitude and enthusiasm to the classroom
21 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Research in Educational PsychologyWhy ResearchIs ImportantProgram EvaluationResearch, ActionResearch, and theTeacher-as-ResearcherResearchMethods
22 Why is educational psychology research important? During a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the white box, and then saved for later reference.
23 The Scientific Research Approach The scientific research approach is objective, systematic, and testable.STEP 4Revise ResearchConclusions & TheorySTEP 3Draw ConclusionsSTEP 2Collect InformationPlease Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.STEP 1Conceptualize the Problem
24 Research Methods Descriptive Research Observations LaboratoryNaturalistic observationParticipant observationInterviews and questionnairesStandardized testsCont…
25 Research Methods Descriptive Research Case studies Ethnographic StudiesFocus GroupsPersonal Journals and Diaries
26 Research Methods Experimental Research Correlational Research Measures the strengthof a relation betweentwo variablesDoes NOT establish causal relationExperimental ResearchRandom assignmentExperimental vs. control groupsIndependent vs. dependent variables
27 Possible Explanations of Correlational Data Observed correlationPossible explanations for this correlationAs permissive teachingincreases, children’s self-control decreasesPermissive teachingChildren’s lackof self-controlChildren’s lack of self-controlcausesOther factors, such as genetic tendencies, poverty, or sociohistorical circumstancescausebothand
28 Experimental Research Independent variable:The manipulated, influential experimental factor.Dependent variable:The factor that is measured in an experiment.Control group:A comparison group, no manipulation.Experimental group:The group whose experience is manipulated.Random assignment:Participants are assigned by chance.
29 Experimental Research A study of the effects of time management on students’ gradesParticipants randomly assigned to experimental and control groupsStudents’ grades in schoolExperimental Group (time management program)Control Group (no time management program)
30 Time Span of Research Cross-sectional Longitudinal Studying groups of people at one timeResearcher doesn’t have to wait until subjects grow olderProvides no information about the stability of data over timeStudying the same individuals over timeEvaluates how children change over timeTime consuming and costlyPlease Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.
31 Program Evaluation, Action Research, and Teacher-As-Researcher Program Evaluation: Designed to make decisions about a particular program.Action Research: Used to solve a particular classroom or school problem.Teacher-As-Researcher: Teachers conduct their own studies to improve their teaching.
32 Should teachers conduct research using their students as subjects? Enter the DebateShould teachers conduct research using their students as subjects?YESNODuring a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the yes/no boxes, and then saved for later reference.
33 Crack the Case The Case of the Curriculum Decision What issues would need to be considered in conducting such a study?What type of research would be most appropriate? Why?If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the independent variable be?This case is on page 25 of the text.Cont...
34 Crack the Case The Case of the Curriculum Decision If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the dependent variable be?How should Ms. Huang go about conducting her study?This case is on page 25 of the text.