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Chapter 1 Applying Psychology to Teaching
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 2 Overview What is Educational Psychology? How Will Learning About Educational Psychology Help You Be a Better Teacher? The Nature and Values of Science Complicating Factors in the Study of Behavior and Thought Processes Good Teaching Is Partly an Art and Partly a Science Reflective Teaching: A Process to Help You Grow From Novice to Expert
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 3 What is Educational Psychology? Educational psychology is …“a scientific discipline that uses psychological constructs and research methods to understand how the various characteristics of students, teachers, learning tasks, and educational settings interact to produce the everyday behaviors we see in school settings.”
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 4 How Will Learning About Educational Psychology Help You Be a Better Teacher? Teaching Is a Complex Enterprise Educational psychology provides information about the many factors that affect teaching and learning Research That Informs Teachers Educational psychology offers useful and tested ideas for improving instruction Coursework and Competence Educational psychology helps prepare teachers to be effective
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 5 Teaching is a Complex Enterprise Professional teaching standards have been developed and are based on five propositions: Teachers are committed to students and their learning Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience Teachers are members of learning communities (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 1994)
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 6 Research in Educational Psychology Informs Teaching Examples: Use more advanced students to tutor less advanced students Give positive reinforcement and corrective feedback to students Communicate to students about expectations Require students to respond to higher-order questions Provide students with cues about the upcoming tasks
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 7 Research in Educational Psychology Informs Teaching Examples continued: Teach students how to monitor and improve their own learning efforts Know students’ misconceptions Create learning situations where students customize information and problems for themselves Accept responsibility for student outcomes Show students how to cooperate
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 8 Coursework and Competence Teachers who have had relevant coursework in education and psychology are likely to be more competent and satisfied with their training than teachers who lack such coursework See Online Video Case “Teaching as a Profession: What Defines Effective Teaching?”
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 9 The Nature and Values of Science Unsystematic Observation Vs. Systematic Observation
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 10 Limitations of Unsystematic Observation May draw false conclusions because alternative explanations are not considered or idiosyncratic factors are given too much importance Retaining students in a grade is an example of a practice that results from unsystematic observation
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 11 Strengths of Scientific Observation A systematic, scientific approach to studying educational problems is characterized by: a representative sample of subjects control of non-relevant variables objectivity published procedures and results replication by others
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 12 Complicating Factors in the Study of Behavior and Thought Processes The Limited Focus of Research The Complexity of Teaching and Learning Selection and Interpretation of Data New Findings Mean Revised Ideas
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 13 Good Teaching is Partly an Art and Partly a Science Teaching as an Art Motives, beliefs, emotions, values, flexibility Teaching as a Science Usable body of research findings
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 14 Good Teaching is Partly an Art and Partly a Science The Teacher as Artistic Scholar: Combining the Art and Science of Teaching Research evidence describes what has worked under particular conditions Research cannot say conclusively what will work in any given situation because of changing circumstances The artistic scholar strikes a balance between the art and science of teaching by using research findings as ideas that might be applicable to a particular group of students at a particular point in time
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 15 Reflective Teaching Reflective teachers possess: An introspective orientation An open-minded but questioning attitude about educational theories and practices The willingness to take responsibility for your decisions and actions
Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 16 Ways to Become a Reflective Teacher Use the Suggestions for Teaching from each chapter to gather ideas Try the Suggestions out in your teaching Use the Journal Entries from each chapter to help guide observation notes of yourself and your students Analyze the observation notes for strengths and weaknesses After each teaching episode, think about and/or write down an assessment of how you did
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