Presentation on theme: "Stopping the Spread of Communism"— Presentation transcript:
1 Stopping the Spread of Communism The Cold WarStopping the Spread of Communism
2 What Is Communism? Economic and political system Based on a ONE party governmentState ownership of propertyHow does this compare to government in America?
3 After World War IIGermany divided into four zones for France, Britain, US, Soviet UnionStalin promised free elections in eastern EuropeStalin broke this promise, installed communist governments (called satellite nations)U.S. had economic stake in spreading democracyU.S. proposes policy of containment to prevent communist expansionDivision between western and eastern Europe = “Iron Curtain”
4 Cold War in Europe Cold War: conflict between US and Soviet Union Truman Doctrine: send $$$ to Greece and Turkey to prevent communismMarshall Plan: send $$$ to western Europe to prevent communismUS, France, and Britain recombine their German zonesSoviets keep theirs, which includes half of Berlin and surrounding areaStalin briefly closes off routes into West BerlinNATO: N. Atlantic Treaty Org.: military alliance
5 Communism Elsewhere China: communist surge led by Mao Zedong Nationalist vs. Communist civil warUS peace negotiations and aid failed; communists winKorea: occupied by Japanese in WW2, surrendered to Soviets in north and Americans in southSoviets/N. Korea attacked S. Korea after US left1950: Truman and others order troops to support S. Koreans, Korean War beginsN Korea pushes S Korea to extreme corner of nation. Macarthur and US arrive in September from the west, others moved from the south, push N Korea almost all the way back to the back of their own country.
6 Korean War in a Nutshell N. Koreans push S. Koreans to edgeUS and others arrive, push N. Koreans to edge.Chinese arrive for N. Korea, pushes S. Korea backGen Macarthur wants to attack China, Truman disagreesJuly 1953: two sides sign armistice, Korea remains as two nations
7 Cold War at Home Extreme paranoia spreads throughout America House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigates Communist influence in AmericaLots of people blacklisted, persecutedRosenbergs: accused of helping the Soviets learn how to make atomic bombWere members of the American Communist PartyConvicted of espionage, sentenced to deathMcCarthyism: Sen. Joseph McCarthy leading a witch hunt for communistsAccused other officials of communism ( gave no names)Bullying of witnesses and accusing the US Army lost him popularityHow could America let communism win in Asia? What if we’re next? Truman criticized as soft. HUAC began by investigating movie industry. Many people were blacklisted (considered unfit to hire). McCarran International Security Act: unlawful to plan action that would establish a totalitarian government. Truman vetoed, Congress didn’t care. German physicist Klaus Fuchs, who helped give the Soviets info about the atomic bomb, said the Rosenbergs were involved. Judge said what the Rosenbergs did was “worse than murder”
8 Cold War at Home US/Soviet Union race to make the first H-bomb Brinkmanship: willingness to go to an all-out war if necessaryStalin dies in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev takes overSoviets sign Warsaw Pact: military alliance with eastern EuropeEisenhower Doctrine: US would defend Middle East against attack by communist countriesSpace race: Soviets launch Sputnik satellite in 1957Americans horrified they weren’t first; pour money into space programUS sent U-2 planes to scout out Soviet areaOne was shot down in 1960, pilot sentenced to 10 years, US admits to spyingEisenhower president in H-bomb = 67 times the power of Hiroshima’s bomb. Argued the morality of it. US won, USSR made one 9 months later. Brinkmanship: trim army/navy, expand air force, buildup of nuclear weapons. Schools practiced air raid drills, families built shelters. Eisenhower Doctrine: after Suez War. US agrees to finance a dam in the Suez, Egypt’s president tries to get Soviet support too, US withdraws aid. Doctrine is used to show support in Middle East to show that the Soviets aren’t the only ones supporting them (sucking up to everyone in the Middle East).