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Stopping the Spread of Communism

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1 Stopping the Spread of Communism
The Cold War Stopping the Spread of Communism

2 What Is Communism? Economic and political system
Based on a ONE party government State ownership of property How does this compare to government in America?

3 After World War II Germany divided into four zones for France, Britain, US, Soviet Union Stalin promised free elections in eastern Europe Stalin broke this promise, installed communist governments (called satellite nations) U.S. had economic stake in spreading democracy U.S. proposes policy of containment to prevent communist expansion Division between western and eastern Europe = “Iron Curtain”

4 Cold War in Europe Cold War: conflict between US and Soviet Union
Truman Doctrine: send $$$ to Greece and Turkey to prevent communism Marshall Plan: send $$$ to western Europe to prevent communism US, France, and Britain recombine their German zones Soviets keep theirs, which includes half of Berlin and surrounding area Stalin briefly closes off routes into West Berlin NATO: N. Atlantic Treaty Org.: military alliance

5 Communism Elsewhere China: communist surge led by Mao Zedong
Nationalist vs. Communist civil war US peace negotiations and aid failed; communists win Korea: occupied by Japanese in WW2, surrendered to Soviets in north and Americans in south Soviets/N. Korea attacked S. Korea after US left 1950: Truman and others order troops to support S. Koreans, Korean War begins N Korea pushes S Korea to extreme corner of nation. Macarthur and US arrive in September from the west, others moved from the south, push N Korea almost all the way back to the back of their own country.

6 Korean War in a Nutshell
N. Koreans push S. Koreans to edge US and others arrive, push N. Koreans to edge. Chinese arrive for N. Korea, pushes S. Korea back Gen Macarthur wants to attack China, Truman disagrees July 1953: two sides sign armistice, Korea remains as two nations

7 Cold War at Home Extreme paranoia spreads throughout America
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigates Communist influence in America Lots of people blacklisted, persecuted Rosenbergs: accused of helping the Soviets learn how to make atomic bomb Were members of the American Communist Party Convicted of espionage, sentenced to death McCarthyism: Sen. Joseph McCarthy leading a witch hunt for communists Accused other officials of communism ( gave no names) Bullying of witnesses and accusing the US Army lost him popularity How could America let communism win in Asia? What if we’re next? Truman criticized as soft. HUAC began by investigating movie industry. Many people were blacklisted (considered unfit to hire). McCarran International Security Act: unlawful to plan action that would establish a totalitarian government. Truman vetoed, Congress didn’t care. German physicist Klaus Fuchs, who helped give the Soviets info about the atomic bomb, said the Rosenbergs were involved. Judge said what the Rosenbergs did was “worse than murder”

8 Cold War at Home US/Soviet Union race to make the first H-bomb
Brinkmanship: willingness to go to an all-out war if necessary Stalin dies in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev takes over Soviets sign Warsaw Pact: military alliance with eastern Europe Eisenhower Doctrine: US would defend Middle East against attack by communist countries Space race: Soviets launch Sputnik satellite in 1957 Americans horrified they weren’t first; pour money into space program US sent U-2 planes to scout out Soviet area One was shot down in 1960, pilot sentenced to 10 years, US admits to spying Eisenhower president in H-bomb = 67 times the power of Hiroshima’s bomb. Argued the morality of it. US won, USSR made one 9 months later. Brinkmanship: trim army/navy, expand air force, buildup of nuclear weapons. Schools practiced air raid drills, families built shelters. Eisenhower Doctrine: after Suez War. US agrees to finance a dam in the Suez, Egypt’s president tries to get Soviet support too, US withdraws aid. Doctrine is used to show support in Middle East to show that the Soviets aren’t the only ones supporting them (sucking up to everyone in the Middle East).

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