Definition SEA Individual cases in which there has been a significant occurrence, not necessarily involving an undesirable outcome for the patient, are analysed in a systematic and detailed way to ascertain what can be learnt about the overall quality of care and to indicate changes that might lead to future improvements (Pringle, 1995)
Clinical Governance A framework through which NHS organisations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish.
Culture Airline industry experience – Learning from events-Root cause analysis – Multidisciplinary and open – No blame culture
To Err is Human 1.Person approach 2.System approach
What the Swiss Cheese Model Tells Us Based on the assumption that though we cannot change the human condition we can change the conditions under which humans work. When an adverse event occurs, the important issue is not who blundered, but how and why the defences failed. Reporting culture is essential to fill in the holes. No blame is an integral part of this.
In General Practice SEA is becoming more established as a core activity that we all should be doing: Practices encouraged to have SEA meetings GPs need to include SEA for appraisal AND it is a mandatory part of evidence for revalidation Trainees in Y&H must include SEA as NOE
Risk Profiling After defining what can go wrong, there are only 2 other questions you need for risk profiling: 1.How bad would that be? 2.How likely is it? (i) Significant Impact and High Likelihood - High Risk (ii) Significant Impact and Low Likelihood - Medium-High Risk (iii) Insignificant Impact and High Likelihood - Medium-Low Risk (iv) Insignificant Impact and Low Likelihood - Low Risk
If it is risky- back to the definition 1.An individual case in which there has been a significant occurrence (not necessarily involving an undesirable outcome for the patient) 2.is analysed in a systematic and detailed way 3.to ascertain what can be learnt about the overall quality of care 4.and to indicate changes that might lead to future improvements.
An SEA from your experience Think about a recent significant event. It doesnt need to be anything that was formally looked at through the eyes of Signifcant Event Analysis. Write about it as if it was a log entry.
An SEA from your experience Discussion Think about what happened - who was involved? What feelings might they have had about the incident? What about the relationships between the people involved? Did you write about organisational systems were relevant to the incident? Did you write about changes to reduce the risk of recurrence? Barriers to reporting: If you didnt report it, why?
Who? Person/people responsible for the event Person/people who witnessed it Person/people who reported it Person/people who didnt report it (although they knew or had an idea it had happened) Person/people responsible for the team Person/people affected by the event Friends and relatives of person/people affected by the event
Can we make sense of all of this? Standard questions – How could things have been different? – What can we learn from what happened? – What needs to change? But its unlikely that we will learn anything if we dont take account of peoples feelings, because the feelings get in the way of the learning. This is also true of the relationships between the people involved. Feelings may need to be explored on 1:1 basis before and/or after any SEA meeting SEA meeting chair needs group facilitation skills
Systems Personal organisation (to-do lists, notebooks, electronic reminders etc) Communication – Spoken: doctor-patient, within team, handover – Written: medical records (paper, electronic), notice boards, correspondence, patient messages – Postal systems, telephone systems, electronic systems – Meetings Access – Appointment systems – Telephone lines Guidelines – Clinical – Procedural Training – Induction – Refresher training – Cascading new information to team
RCGP proforma Now use this structure and do it again What happened? Why did it happen? Who was involved in the discussion of the event? What have you learned? What have you changed in the practice as a result of the review? What have you changed in your personal practice as a result of the review?
DAD Gather D ata A nalyse that data D ecide on a plan – whats the next step?
Data Gathering – what happened? Good data gathering to avoid premature conclusions. Hold a team meeting Set the climate – may need to aire feelings to neutralise them, importance of no blame culture. Keep focus on making things better, not apportioning blame. 1.Review care and immediate problems (both positive aspects and aspects needing improvement); Explore knowledge skills & attitudes 2.Timeline of events – needs to include all team members;
Analysis – trying to make sense of it Root cause analysis Relevant scientific papers or articles may be obtained to inform discussion Review of possibilities for prevention – think in terms of KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ATTITUDES as well as systems Consider: – interface issues – team issues – Review possibilities and implications for other stakeholders like family, community, staff etc.
Decide – what next? Plan of action Summarise & Document Check everyone is okay Set a date and method for review/follow up
Outcomes Celebration if the care is good No action if the event could not be prevented A conventional audit if a deficiency is exposed in a system Immediate change if a weakness is exposed and a remedy can be clearly seen Actions must be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound (SMART)
Pitfalls Being more aware is not good enough! Actions should be physical actions (something needs to be physically done) – otherwise it wont happen. Need to get everyone on board – otherwise it becomes your hobby horse and quality of care remains unchanged.
Top Tips 1 Write a SUBJECTIVE first person (I) narrative of a SEA from the point of view of anyone involved in it except yourself Include – What happened (as they see it) – Their relationships with other people involved – Their feelings about the incident
Top Tips 2 Make an OBJECTIVE note of exactly what happened And what happened next And the outcome And – can you identify any nodal points when a key decision was made which determined what happened next?
Back to RCGP proforma Re-write your SEA in terms of: What happened? (Do a time line?) Why did it happen? (Root cause analysis) Who was involved in the discussion of the event? What have you learned? (Analyse) What have you changed in the practice as a result of the review? (Decide) What have you changed in your personal practice as a result of the review? (Follow up/Review)
Closing Remarks Critical Incident Review key part of GP Practice Useful learning tool System based approach Emphasis on learning from mistakes