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Dealing with Bibliographies Cardiff School of Religious & Theological Studies Astudiaethau Crefyddol a Diwinyddol An Interactive Guide.

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Presentation on theme: "Dealing with Bibliographies Cardiff School of Religious & Theological Studies Astudiaethau Crefyddol a Diwinyddol An Interactive Guide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dealing with Bibliographies Cardiff School of Religious & Theological Studies Astudiaethau Crefyddol a Diwinyddol An Interactive Guide

2 Introduction Definitions Basic Features Referencing Styles Primary Sources Journals, etc Edited Volumes The Internet Difficult Material Contents Select the topic you would like to explore by clicking on the relevant box. Although you can choose the order in which you explore each section, we recommend that you follow each lesson sequentially. Alternatively, you can proceed through the entire guide sequentially. To repeat a section, simply click on the return button ( ) at the end of each section. Click on the home button ( ) at the end of each section to return to this menu. Further Help Exit Guide

3 Section One Introduction, Aims & Objectives

4 Introduction This presentation has been designed as a self- study guide, which you can work through at your own pace However, we recommend that you take at least 30 minutes to complete it We also recommend that you keep it as a reference guide after you have completed it Remember… This guide aims to complement and not replace other forms of learning If you need help, ask us! Its what were here for!

5 Aim The aim of this guide is… To introduce you to the purposes, format and construction of an academic bibliography

6 Objectives Once you have worked through this guide, you should be able to… Understand the purpose of bibliographies in academic writing Recognise some of the main features of an accurate bibliography Begin compiling your own bibliographies according to set criteria

7 Section Two Definitions & Significance

8 Definitions In order to understand how to use bibliographies, we first need to understand what bibliographies are Although there are numerous definitions, a bibliography can be defined as a record of the sources used in writing an academic standard essay

9 Why Bother with Bibliographies? There are a number of reasons why accurately presented bibliographies are important. A bibliography… Gives a clear record of your sources Enables lecturers to see that you have been reading appropriate material Provides an indication for further reading Allows readers to check your sources for accuracy Gives readers the opportunity to find further reading material Helps demonstrate that you have sufficiently researched your essay As you can see, bibliographies have a number of important uses

10 Why Bother with Bibliographies? Furthermore… During Year 1, presentation accounts for… 30% of your overall mark! An accurate bibliography is a large part of the correct presentation of an academic essay In other words, if you want to gain as many marks as possible… Use bibliographies correctly!

11 Section Three Basic Features

12 The Basics Generally speaking, bibliographies should include the following information… Authors Surname & Initials i.e. Smith, A. Year of Publication i.e Title of Book, Journal Article, etc i.e. An Introduction to Flower Arranging Notice that the book title is given in italics Place of Publication i.e. London Publisher i.e. United Flower Arranging Press

13 An Important Point However, there are two points to remember… You will need to include more information in certain circumstances This information is arranged differently, depending upon which referencing system you use We will look at both of these points shortly…

14 Section Four Different Referencing Styles

15 In previous presentations, we looked at two of the main referencing techniques (the Harvard System & the Humanities System). Each system arranges bibliographies in a slightly different manner Because RELIG insists that you use one of these systems, it is important that you correctly understand these differences. However, the key point to remember is consistency

16 The Harvard System The standard Harvard method is … –Capps, D. (1990), The Flying Vicar, Nashville: Abingdon Press. As you can see, the year of publication goes at the beginning The publishing details go at the end Also, the book title itself is italicised For further information, refer to Chapter 8 of the Student Handbook

17 The Humanities System The standard Humanities method is … –Capps, David The Flying Vicar (Nashville, Abingdon Press, 1990) By contrast, the date goes at the end The authors first name is written in full The book title is still given in italics For further information, refer to Chapter 8 of the Student Handbook

18 Section Five Primary Sources

19 What Are Primary Sources? For our purposes, primary sources are the major textual sources for the study of particular religions (such as the Bible). As such, primary sources are an important study resource. How, then, should we cite primary sources in our bibliography? Before we see how, a word of caution is required… For further information, refer to Chapter 8 of the Student Handbook

20 Caution! Although at RELIG you have the opportunity to learn a number of classical languages (such as Hebrew or Sanskrit), initially you will use English translations of key sacred texts. Because the very act of translation necessarily involves a degree of re- interpretation, it is essential that you make it clear which translation you are using.

21 Citing Primary Sources When citing a primary source, you should list it alphabetically by title. You then need to include the date of the edition you are using and then the name of the translator. The title of the edition you are using should be given next (in italics as with other book titles). Finally, you should give the place of publication and the details of the publisher

22 Primary Sources An Example… QURAN (1997, trans. Fakhry, M.), The Quran. A Modern English Version, Reading: Garnet Publishing Citing a primary source like this gives the required information clearly and concisely.

23 Section Six Journals, Magazines & Newspapers

24 Using Journals Although books will be your primary resource, you will also be expected to use the Universitys extensive selection of journal, magazine and newspaper articles Academic convention cites material from such sources slightly differently We will look at each in turn …

25 Citing Journals As with book citations, you will need … The authors surname and initials The year of publication You will also need … The title of the Journal The page numbers of the article itself Also … The text is organised slightly differently

26 Citing Journals For example… Smith, A. (1988), Arranging Flowers Today: Some Ideological Considerations, The Modern Flower Arranger, pp As you can see, the article title is given in quotation marks ( … ) The title of the Journal is given in italics Also, page numbers are included instead of publishing details

27 Magazine & Newspapers Generally speaking, you cite magazine and newspaper articles in the same manner as journal articles However, unlike journals, you will need to include the date the article was published

28 Magazines & Newspapers For example … Smith, A. (1989), Lunatic Flower Arranger Invades Town Hall, Toy-town Gazette, Wednesday Friday 13 th 1989, pp.1-4 Or … Jones, P. (1995), Its Official: Chrysanthemums are the New Roses!, Vogue, Saturday 27 th April 1995, pp

29 Section Seven Essays & Edited Volumes

30 Essays During your studies, you will use articles by authors in edited volumes. For example … Dr. A. Smith has written an important article on the history of flower arranging in a larger work on modern gardening techniques. How would we cite such an essay in our bibliography?

31 Essays We would need to know the name of the editor, the title of the overall book and the page numbers of the article itself Thus, for example … –Smith, A. (1984), A History of Flower Arranging in Britain in Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press, pp. 11 – 45 As you can see, there are a number of important differences here Lets look at each of them in turn …

32 Key Differences The article should be listed in your bibliography under the authors name and not the editors The article itself is treated in the same manner as a journal. The article title is therefore given within quotation marks (…) The rest of the quotation is cited in the same way as books are. Thus, the title is given in italics and the publishing details are given Lastly, you will need to give the page numbers of the article itself

33 Points to Remember Generally speaking, if you use one article from an edited volume you only need cite that reference once. However, if you use more than one essay you will need to cite each article separately under the relevant article author Also, you will need to cite the volume itself separately

34 Points to Remember For example… If you use another essay from the same work, you need to cite it –Peters, A. (1984), Verge Trimming in the Contemporary World in Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press, pp. 115 – 146 You will also need to cite the edited volume itself –Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press

35 Example Bibliography Thus, our sample bibliography would look like this… Jones, A. (1984), Verge Trimming in the Contemporary World in Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press, pp. 115 – 146 Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press Smith, A. (1984), A History of Flower Arranging in Britain in Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press, pp. 11 – 45

36 Section Eight The Internet

37 Using the Internet The growth of the Internet has created a vast range of materials for you to make use of in your essays In academic study you need to make your sources of information explicit Given this, it is essential that you learn how to cite Internet material correctly However, before we proceed, a word of caution is required …

38 Caution! There are few, if any, controls on the quality, accuracy and fairness of Internet material When using Internet material, remember … Quality: is the material suitably academic? Accuracy: is it factually accurate? Fairness: is it a balanced account? Bias: does the essay have an axe to grind? Perspective: who is writing the material and why? If you arent sure about a particular site, ask the relevant lecturer

39 Citing Internet Material When citing Internet material, include the following information … The Author (if known) The Document Title The Document Type (i.e. whether it is an electronic journal) The Sites Web Address (i.e. The Date (i.e. when you accessed the site)

40 Two Examples No. 1 Anderson, K., Key Debates in Flower Arranging, Royal Flower Arranging Journal 78 (2002) 1-27 [Electronic Journal] [accessed 10 September 2002] No. 2 Bach, P. Roses in Routledge Encyclopedia of Flowers, [accessed 3 October 2003]

41 Section Nine Difficult Material

42 There are occasions when correctly citing a reference can be difficult and confusing! In general, there are two major areas of confusion: (i) Citing works by the same author, written in different years (ii) Citing works by the same author, written in the same year Lets look at each in turn

43 Same Author, Different Year In this case, you can distinguish between references by looking at the year For example … Smith, A. (1984), A History of Flower Arranging in Britain in Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press, pp. 11 – 45 Smith, A. (1989), An Introduction to Flower Arranging, London: United Flower Arranging Press

44 Same Author, Same Year This is a little more tricky List such articles by title alphabetically and then assign them a letter For example … Smith, A. (1989a), An Introduction to Flower Arranging, London: United Flower Arranging Press Smith, A. (1989b), Lunatic Flower Arranger Invades Town Hall, Toy-town Gazette, Wednesday Friday 13 th 1989, pp.1-4 If you have more than two such articles, just keep adding letters

45 Section Ten Putting It All Together

46 Our Bibliography In this guide, we have referred to several fictitious books, journal articles, Internet sites and so on In this final section, we will put these references together and construct our own bibliography Although we will use the Harvard system, our bibliography can easily be adapted

47 Bibliography Anderson, K., Key Debates in Flower Arranging, Royal Flower Arranging Journal 78 (2002) 1-27 [Electronic Journal] [accessed 10 September 2002]www.rfaj.org.uk Bach, P. Roses in Routledge Encyclopedia of Flowers, [accessed 3 October 2003] Jones, P. (1995), Its Official: Chrysanthemums are the New Roses!, Vogue, Saturday 27 th April 1995, pp Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press

48 Bibliography Peters, A. (1984), Verge Trimming in the Contemporary World in Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press, pp. 115 – 146 Smith, A. (1984), A History of Flower Arranging in Britain in Other, A.N. (ed., 1984), Gardening Techniques Today, London: United Flower Arranging Press, pp. 11 – 45 Smith, A. (1989a), An Introduction to Flower Arranging, London: United Flower Arranging Press Smith, A. (1989b), Lunatic Flower Arranger Invades Town Hall, Toy-town Gazette, Wednesday Friday 13 th 1989, pp.1- 4

49 Section Eleven Further Help

50 Finding Extra Help You can find further help with bibliographies in… The Student Handbook The Guide to Academic Integrity Individual Module Handbooks You can also talk to… Lecturers (during their office hours) The Student Support Officer: Richard Cawley or ext )

51 Cardiff School of Religious & Theological Studies Astudiaethau Crefyddol a Diwinyddol


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