Presentation on theme: "CRed carbon reduction Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, University."— Presentation transcript:
CRed carbon reduction Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia Energy Futures Hard Choices Ahead 11 th October 2005
Hard Choice Ahead Evidence of Climate Change Energy Options for the Future Hard Choices Ahead Future carbon dioxide emissions Some conservation issues A way forward Conclusions
Future Global Warming Rates
Climate Change Arctic meltdown Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region –Nasa satellite imagery Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years
Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods - figures taken from Energy Review 2002 Difficult Choices Ahead
Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol?
Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004
Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years which is unlikely If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power Are we happy on this and the other attendant risks?
Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on around 70% of our heating and electricity from GAS imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
Historic and Future Demand for Electricity Number of households will rise by 17.5% by 2025 and consumption per household must fall by this amount just to remain static
Electricity Options for the Future Low Growth Scenario Capped at 420 TWh 33% CO 2 reduction (Gas) cf % CO 2 reduction (Nuclear) cf % increase in gas consumption ( Gas Scenario) cf 2002 Mix option: 6 new nuclear plant by 2025 Mix option: 11% increase in gas consumption (cf 2002) High Growth Scenario Business as Usual 0.3 % CO 2 reduction (Gas) cf % CO 2 reduction (Nuclear) cf % increase in gas consumption ( Gas Scenario) cf % Renewables by MW Wind MW Other Renewables inc. Tidal, hydro, biomass etc.
Government Response Energy White Paper – aspiration for 60% cut in CO 2 emissions by 2050 Will require unprecedented partnership activity in local communities to ensure on track by 2020s (– but no indication of how this will be undertaken) There will be much more local generation, in part from medium to small local/community power plant, fuelled by locally grown biomass, from locally generated waste, and from local wind sources. These will feed local distributed networks, which can sell excess capacity into the grid. - Energy White Paper: February 2003
How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797)
Some facts: A mobile phone charger left on even when not charging up to 20 kg CO 2 a year Standby on television > 60 kg per year Filling up with petrol (~40 litres ~£37 for a full tank) kg of CO 2 (5% of one balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles
Many residents on island of Burray (Orkney) compaigned for a wind turbine. On average they are fully self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity Involve the local Community
Conclusions Global Warming will affect us all - in next few decades Need to move towards energy conservation and LOCAL generation of energy It is as much about the individuals response to use of energy as any technical measures the Government may take. Wind (and possibly biomass) are the only real alternatives for renewable generation in next 5 – 10 years. Otherwise Nuclear? Can we avoid new Nuclear? Yes: but only if expansion of Renewables is at a greater rate than even Government Targets and everyone embraces Energy Conservation Even if we are not convinced about Global Warming – Energy Security issues will shortly start to affect us. Inaction over making difficult decisions now will make Energy Insecurity more likely in future.
Need to act now otherwise we might have to make choice of whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat an old persons room Conclusions Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."