2 Oceanic WaterWhat do you think affects ocean temperatures?Horizontal and vertical spatial variations in the temperature and salinity of ocean water.
3 What affects ocean temperatures? LatitudeSeasonal changes (tilt of the Earth)Ocean depthSalinityTransfer of energy (through winds/ocean currents)
4 Annotate your map to show (1) global variations in sea surface temperatures (2) the impact of ocean currents (look at the differences on the East and West sides of the continents)Horizontal spatial variations
5 Annotate your map to show (1) global variations in sea surface temperatures (2) the impact of ocean currents (look at the differences on the East and West sides of the continents)Sea surface temperature varies according to latitude – it is much warmer nearer to equatorial regions than in the polesOn the Western sides of continents, the cooler waters from ocean currents can be seen intruding towards the equator. Similarly (if not quite so clearly), the warmer waters of ocean currents flowing from the equatorial regions can be seen on the eastern side of several continents)
6 Vertical spatial variations in ocean waters Ocean water varies considerably with depth – two of the considerable variations are:TemperatureSalinity (how salty the water is)
7 How does ocean water temperature change with depth? Tasks:Draw a sketch of the graphDescribe what happens to ocean water temperatures with increasing depthBetween summer and winter, the ocean temperature change varies quite significantly between m deep. Below this level the temperature decline is much slower.
8 ThermoclineDefinition: the zone of rapid temperature change in a vertical body of water. In the oceans the boundary usually occurs between 200m and 800m.Approx. 90% of ocean water is found below the thermocline. Generally the surface waters do not mix with the deeper layers.
9 As oceans get deeper... Temperature decreases BUT... Salinity increasesWater density increases
10 How does ocean water salinity change with depth? Halocline - the zone of rapid salinity change in a vertical body of water. In the oceans the boundary usually occurs between 200m and 800m which is in a similar region to the thermocline.
11 What is the relationship between temperature, salinity and water density in the oceans? Cold water is denser than warm water+Saltier water is also denserTemperature decreases with depthSalinity increases with depth=An increase in water density as depth increasesHighTemperatureLowLowHighSalinity
12 How does ocean water density change with depth? Pycnocline - the zone of rapid water density change in a vertical body of water. In the oceans the boundary usually occurs between 200m and 800m which is in a similar region to the thermocline and halocline.
13 A few things to note...The changes are seen more sharply in tropical areas than in polar regions because the surface temperatures are warmer near the equatorAt great depths there is very little change in temperature between the equator and the poles
14 Where in the world can you find...? The warmest waters?The coldest waters?The saltiest waters?The least salty water?The water with the highest density?The water with the lowest density?