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It all begins with the sun……. Uneven Heating of the Earth The Earth's major source of energy is the Sun. The Earth is constantly receiving solar energy,

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Presentation on theme: "It all begins with the sun……. Uneven Heating of the Earth The Earth's major source of energy is the Sun. The Earth is constantly receiving solar energy,"— Presentation transcript:

1 It all begins with the sun……

2 Uneven Heating of the Earth The Earth's major source of energy is the Sun. The Earth is constantly receiving solar energy, but different areas of Earth receive different amounts of solar energy. This affects weather and climate.

3 Different areas of the Earth receive different amounts of sunlight.

4 The equator receives the most sunlight because the Sun is closer to being directly overhead year-round than it is at any other place on the Earth. This increases the amount of heat energy received and explains why areas near the equator have tropical climates.

5 The poles receive the least sunlight, which is why they have cold climates.

6 The solar energy received by the Earth causes ocean currents, winds, seasons, and climate differences.

7 OCEAN CURRENTS The uneven heating of the Earth's surface creates energy flow. Winds and ocean currents flow from warmer areas to colder areas, which means that they travel from the equator toward the poles.

8 Because water has a much higher heat capacity (absorbs and lets go of heat more) slowly than land, water temperature will increase and decrease less than land temperature.temperature For example, during daytime, land temperatures might change by tens of degrees, while water temperature change by less than half a degree.

9 This means that coastal land temperatures dont fluctuate (go up and down) extremely (a lot) because the ocean water nearby doesnt fluctuate much.

10 Upwelling Causes cold, nutrient rich water from the deep ocean to rise to the surface.

11 El Nino and La Nina El Nino is a change in water temperature in the Pacific ocean that produces a warm current. La Nina is a change in temperature in the Eastern Pacific that causes surface water temperature to be much colder than usual

12 BOTH El nino and La Nina can cause flooding (too much rain) and drought (too little rain) in different places on Earth. Upwelling does not occur where it normally would and this affects fish and sealife.

13 Coriolis Effect Because of the coriolis effect, winds appear to deflected to the east or west depending on the direction winds are traveling.

14 A buoy records data about surface ocean temperature and transmits (sends) the information to a satellite in space that then transmits(sends) the information to scientists.

15 Wave crest trough Two parts of a wave Crest: highest part of a wave Trough: lowest part of a wave

16 Surface ocean currents are primarily formed by _______. A. winds B. tides C. aquatic organisms D. underwater volcanoes

17 Surface ocean currents are primarily formed by _______. A. winds

18 Regions at different latitudes around the world receive different amounts of solar radiation. Polar regions receive the least amount of solar radiation, while the equator receives the most. How does this most likely affect the global climate? A. polar regions experience colder climates B. the global climate is mostly cold C. the global climate is mostly warm D. equatorial regions experience colder climates

19 Regions at different latitudes around the world receive different amounts of solar radiation. Polar regions receive the least amount of solar radiation, while the equator receives the most. How does this most likely affect the global climate? Answer: A. polar regions experience colder climates

20 Currents caused by differences in water density are most often the result of A. differences in salinity and wind. B. differences in temperature and salinity. C. uniform temperature and salinity. D. uniform salinity and wind.

21 Currents caused by differences in water density are most often the result of Answer: B. differences in temperature and salinity.

22 Seasonal changes in water temperature tend to remain within a narrow range. This is opposed to air temperature, which tends to fluctuate across a wide range. The relative stability of ocean temperatures helps to regulate the temperatures of coastal regions. Why can water remain within a narrow range of temperatures? A. It has a high heat capacity. B. It is mobile and this allows heated water to sink. C. It reflects heat and does not absorb heat. D. It is only stable within a small temperature range.

23 Seasonal changes in water temperature tend to remain within a narrow range. This is opposed to air temperature, which tends to fluctuate across a wide range. The relative stability of ocean temperatures helps to regulate the temperatures of coastal regions. Why can water remain within a narrow range of temperatures? A. It has a high heat capacity.

24 Convection currents, resulting from uneven heating of the Earth's surface, cause _________ to form. A. wind B. mountains C. volcanoes D. fossils

25 Convection currents, resulting from uneven heating of the Earth's surface, cause _________ to form. A. wind

26 Ocean currents and global wind patterns, which are caused by convection currents, most strongly affect a region's... A. latitude. B. population size. C. day length. D. climate.

27 Ocean currents and global wind patterns, which are caused by convection currents, most strongly affect a region's... Answer: D. climate.

28 Water is cooler near the poles and warmer near the equator. Movement of cooler and warmer water from these regions moderates the global climate. Which of the following describes the movement of water between the poles and the equator? A. tides B. ocean currents C. evaporation D. gravity

29 Water is cooler near the poles and warmer near the equator. Movement of cooler and warmer water from these regions moderates the global climate. Which of the following describes the movement of water between the poles and the equator? Answer: B. ocean currents

30 Which property of oceans best explains why they have a major effect on climate? A. They contain large amounts of dissolved salt. B. They have a constant tidal movement. C. They absorb gases from the atmosphere. D. They hold a large amount of heat energy.

31 Which property of oceans best explains why they have a major effect on climate? Answer: D. They hold a large amount of heat energy.

32 The circulation of water in the ocean due to differences in density between the different layers of water is mostly responsible for A.the ebb and flow of the tides. B.the eruption of underwater volcanoes. C.deep water ocean currents. D.all of these

33 The circulation of water in the ocean due to differences in density between the different layers of water is mostly responsible for Answer: C.deep water ocean currents.

34 Convection currents, which affect weather and climate, are created by... A. slow, constant tectonic movement. B. erosion of ocean beaches. C. mining of the seafloor. D. the uneven heating of the Earth.

35 Convection currents, which affect weather and climate, are created by... Answer: D. the uneven heating of the Earth.

36 How do warm water currents like the gulf current affect the climate of the British Isles? A. Has no effect B. The gulf current creates a warm climate in the British Isles C. The gulf current creates a cold climate In the British Isles

37 How do warm water currents like the gulf current affect the climate of the British Isles? Answer: A. The gulf current creates a warm climate in the British Isles

38 El Nino and La Nina


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