Cardinal Directions North, South, East, and West are all Cardinal Directions
Using A Compass One way to determine North is by using a magnetic compass. A compass needle points toward the magnetic north pole. The Earth has two different sets of poles. The Geographic poles and the magnetic poles. The two poles have slightly different locations.
Latitude Lines of latitude are lines that run parallel to the equator. The equator represents 0 degrees latitude. The North Pole is 90° north latitude and The South Pole is 90° south latitude.
Longitude Imaginary lines that pass through the poles are called Lines of Longitude, or meridians. Longitude is the distance east and west of the Prime Meridian, witch represents 0° longitude The Prime Meridian does not completely circle the globe like the equator, actually it runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England. On The opposite side of the globe, The IDL is 180° Longitude
Lines of Latitude and Longitude intersect, forming a grid system on globes and maps. This grid system can be used to find locations north or south of the equator and east or west of the prime meridian
A Mercator Projection is a map projection that results when the contents of the globe are transferred onto a cylinder of paper.
A topographic map is a map that shows surface features of the Earth Contour lines are lines on a topographical map that connect lines of equal elevation. For Example, if one line connects points on a map that have an elevation of 100 feet, then another line would connect points that have an elevation of 200 feet. Contour Lines
The difference in elevation between one contour line and the next is called the contour interval. For example, a map with a contour interval of 20 feet would have contour lines every 20 feet of elevation change, such as 0 ft, 20 ft, 40 ft, and so on. Steep Elevation