Presentation on theme: "School of the Built Environment 1 Household travel behaviour adjacent to the National Cycle Network: the Networks role in encouraging utility cycling Tim."— Presentation transcript:
School of the Built Environment 1 Household travel behaviour adjacent to the National Cycle Network: the Networks role in encouraging utility cycling Tim Jones Land Use and Transport Research Group Department of Planning Cycling and the Social Sciences Lancaster University 29 June 2004
2 School of the Built Environment Overview UK cycle policy & reflection on state of cycling in the UK Theories on providing for cycling The Sustrans National Cycle Network Research aims, hypotheses and conceptual framework Research strategy & design: pilot surveys Conclusion: contribution of research
3 School of the Built Environment Definitions Utility/functional cycling - cycling as a mode of transport; used as a means to an end rather than an end itself; for functional journeys e.g. to travel to work or to the shops. Recreational/Leisure cycling - cycling as an end in itself, for pleasure, to keep fit, for social outings but not as a form of transport in its own right.
4 School of the Built Environment Cycling policy in the UK National Cycling Strategy launched in The central target of the strategy is to double the amount of cycle use by 2002 (on 1996 base) and to double it again by From 2% to 8% of all trips by cycle by Equates to increase from 16 to 64 trips by cycle per person per year The Government requires local authorities to develop and implement cycling strategies as part of their Local Transport Plans (LTPs). National Cycle Strategy Board set up to oversee strategy with English Regions Cycling Development Team (ERCDT) working with LAs on the ground to ensure implementation at local level.
5 School of the Built Environment Cycling in Britain compared to Europe
6 School of the Built Environment Culture of car dependency British people make more use of cars than any other European country, despite having below average car ownership. 9 out of 10 motorised journeys (car, bus, motorbike) in the UK are by car, compared with an EU average of just over eight out of ten. Nearly 60% use a car to make journeys within walking and cycling distance (ONS, 2002). Cycling as a utility mode still accounts for around 2% of all journeys nationally. CfIT,  European Best Practice in Delivering Integrated Transport
7 School of the Built Environment National Cycle Network (NCN) being developed by civil engineering charity Sustrans. Currently provides 8,000 miles of cycling and walking routes throughout the UK. By 2005 this will be extended to 10,000 miles. 77 million trips by cycle in 2003/ 13% year-on-year growth between % trips for leisure/recreation One-third of the Network is on traffic-free paths with remainder using quiet lanes or traffic-calmed roads in towns or cities. Offer those starting or returning the opportunity to learn to cycle or regain their confidence and skills on a traffic free section. Sustrans National Cycle Network
8 School of the Built Environment Department for Transport & the National Cycle Network We will continue to help with the development of the National Cycle Network being co-ordinated by the transport charity Sustrans. The Network will be a series of traffic-free paths and traffic calmed roads providing some 8,000 miles of safe and attractive routes by By opening up opportunities for people to cycle more, the Network will help to create a culture that welcomes cycling as a healthy activity A New Deal for Transport (para 3.12 page 39)
9 School of the Built Environment The Sustrans theory John Grimshaw - Director, Sustrans Getting people to use the Network is the fundamental challenge of the route. We hope that it will be so enjoyable, the route so attractive as well as hazard-free, that the first thing people think about as soon as they have tried it is to want to do it again…They will feel that cycling does something for them, that they look upon their linear park through which they pass, with its fine scenery and its artworks, as theirs. That the route can be incorporated into everyday life, as part of the work day or the school day as well as the day off at the weekend. Sustrans (2000) Millennium Miles: The story of the National Cycle Network [pp12-13].
10 School of the Built Environment Franklins conflicting viewpoint John Franklin, Expert Witness and Author of Cycle Craft …I certainly do not see them [Sustrans traffic-free paths] as safe routes, nor as any kind of stepping stone by which to acquire the skills and confidence that people so desperately need in order to cycle more widely and more often. I do think that Sustrans, through its publicity, is guilty of scaring many people from cycling in places where they might readily gain competence. Franklin in correspondence with John Grimshaw (June 1998) available at
11 School of the Built Environment Theories on providing for cycling Forester - proponent of Vehicular Cycling vehemently against what he has coined 'cyclist- inferiority phobia' spelled out in Bikeway controversy describes 'bikeways' as the 'concrete expression of society's inferiority view of cycling' that proclaimed motorists endangered cyclists and the way to protect cyclists was to build more bikeways. Concludes that engineer works in a society in which the cyclists inferiority superstition dominates public opinion and public action. Pucher - disputes this analysis. Cycling safer and more popular in those countries where where bikeways are prevalent e.g Netherlands, Denmark & Germany. However, Pucher does advocate a multi-faceted approach but does not favour eliminating choice by forcing all cycling on roadways. People should be offered the possibility of cycling along separate facilities instead of being forced on to the road way.
12 School of the Built Environment Research questions To what extent is the National Cycle Network generating a cultural response to cycling and encouraging more people to cycle? -Are populations served by the National Cycle Network aware of its availability? -How does this affect attitudes towards cycling? -What are the distinguishing characteristics between users and non-users of the NCN amongst the general population? What are the circumstances that attracted those new or returning to cycling to use the National Cycle Network? -Is cycling sustained by these new or returning users over time? -To what extent is the frequency and functional proportion of cycle use increasing as a result of gaining experience on the National Cycle Network and where does this cycling take place?
13 School of the Built Environment Working hypotheses hypothesis one The National Cycle Network (NCN) being developed by Sustrans is raising travel awareness amongst the population it serves and is encouraging more sustainable travel behaviour. hypothesis two The NCN is encouraging people to cycle who did not previously cycle or who are returning to cycling after a significant break and encouraging existing cyclists to cycle more. hypothesis three Traffic-free sections of the NCN are providing new users with the skills and confidence to use their cycles for everyday travel in a variety of contexts
14 School of the Built Environment Research approach and design Deductive approach theory>hypotheses>data collection>findings>confirm/reject hypotheses>revision of theory Cross sectional design one off collection of data on a series of variables Quantitative and Qualitative design collection of data on attribute, attitudinal & behavioural variables interviews with selected cases and key stakeholders Case study approach selection of case typical of the NCN where opportunities for traffic-free recreational and utility cycling
15 School of the Built Environment Underlying conceptual frameworks 1. Forester and Pucher theories on encouraging cycling 2. Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change - Analyses Readiness for Change 3. Theory of Planned Behaviour - Analyses beliefs about whether behaviour is evaluated positively/negatively; perceived social pressure to perform behaviour from close significant others; level of actual control over behaviour 4. Dunlaps New Ecological Paradigm - Measure of environmental worldview or pro-environmental orientation.
16 School of the Built Environment Pilot Study NCN R5 - Stafford Stafford, Staffordshire, England free-standing - compact - medium sized town with average levels of cycling (3%) 3 substantial sections of traffic-free (NCN) route converge in centre of town (developed 2001) linked to WM conurbation by West Coast Mainline significant promotion of cycling through LA21 Strategy practical for lone researcher (balancing sustainable access-travel time-costs)
17 School of the Built Environment Pilot Study May NCN R5 Stafford NCN Route 5 - Stafford Beaconside-Derrington Cycle Route [completed 2001]
18 School of the Built Environment Case study housing development Mahogany Drive Housing Development, Stafford, adjacent to NCN R5 Built Circa 130 properties - 1Km to town centre - 3Km to access countryside
19 School of the Built Environment Survey sample population & sampling strategy A Route users (weekday/weekend & term/non-term time) on NCN section/s Intercept surveys of route users and issue placement questionnaire for rider/s and associated household members B Resident population (random sample of 65 properties adjacent to NCN 5) Face-to-face household surveys and issue placement questionnaires to individuals in each household aged 17+ C Within groups Identify new or returning users for depth interviews and repeat interviews months later to identify change in travel behaviour
20 School of the Built Environment Contribution Models borrowed from social psychology applied to investigate whether the National Cycle Network is prompting a 'cultural change' in attitudes to cycling. In-depth case study approach will provide an analytical (as opposed to a purely descriptive survey) design and will not just address questions of 'how many' but also 'why'. The research will allow comparison to be made between of the attitudes and behaviour of users of the National Cycle Network and the 'non-user' population. Will include a time series component to assess the hypothesis that off-road sections of the NCN are providing new users with the skills and confidence to use their cycles for everyday travel behaviour in a variety of different contexts.
21 School of the Built Environment Contact Paper accompanying this presentation is available electronically. Results of pilot available August Welcome your input... Contact: Tim Jones Department of Planning Oxford Brookes University THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!