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Copular clauses in English and in Czech Markéta Malá Charles University in Prague.

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1 Copular clauses in English and in Czech Markéta Malá Charles University in Prague

2 Copular clauses – a comparative corpus-based approach Copular clauses: –clauses with a verbo-nominal predicate comprising a copular verb and a subject complement –used to ascribe a quality, property or value to the subject Verbs: –both Czech and English: copular verbs be - být and become - stát se –English: a broader repertoire of copular verbs, various types of attribution (e.g., verbs of seeming, attribution based on perception, verbs of remaining etc.) What means are employed in Czech to express such modified attribution? What can the constructions used in Czech suggest of the meaning of the respective copular verbs in English? In what ways can multilingual translation corpora be employed in contrastive research?

3 Material and methodology a parallel translation corpus of aligned Czech and English fiction texts a part of the InterCorp project – a multilingual corpus of 21 languages (49.3 mil. tokens) with Czech (44 mil. tokens) in the centre as a pivot language Czech – English 4 mil. – 4.7 mil. tokens (34 texts + Project Syndicate), part-of-speech tagged Michael Barlow – ParaConc (alignment checked manually) Web-based interface Pilot parallel sub-corpus used for the present study (cca tokens)

4 English originals 3 novels tokens English translations tokens Czech translations tokens Czech originals 3 novels tokens Pilot parallel sub-corpus used for the present study cca tokens bidirectional, balanced (cf. Johansson 2007, Dušková 2004, 2005)

5 The scope of the study The copular verb proper be / být, which does not add any semantic content to the predicate phrase it is contained in (Pustet 2005 [2003], 5) – excluded Semi-copulas (or quasi-copulas, or complex-intransitives) add meaning to the predicate phrases in which they are contained. This semantic function, while not directly affecting the inner core of the predicate phrase, that is, its lexical nucleus, by altering the intrinsic semantic content of the latter, consist in importing... meaning components into the predicate phrase. (Pustet 2005 [2003], 5 - 6) 2 groups of semi-copulas: –verbs with depictive predicative complements (current copulas) feel, continue, appear, look, keep, seem, smell, remain, sound, stay, prove, taste, –verbs with resultative predicative complements (resulting copulas) become, grow, come, turn, fall, get, go.

6 Copular verbs in English originals and in English translations Word-count (tokens) Copular verbs (abs) Copular verbs per 1000 tokens English originals English translations (78% of E.orig.)

7 The correspondences between become and stát se English sources > Czech translations 1. The mountains around the school became icy gray Hory kolem školy byly teď ledově šedé.... [The mountains around the school were now icy gray....] 2. You that demon for pleasure who became so wise. Ty, která sis tak potrpěla na zábavu a která jsi tolik zmoudřela. [prefix z- = change] 3. We do, after all, wish him to become someone we can be proud of, don't we? Chceme přece, aby vyrostl v člověka, na nějž budeme moci být hrdí, ne? [ grow up to be …] 4. A small bolt from a cockpit became jewellery. Matice z pilotní kabiny se stala šperkem. 5. In jail he became serene and devious. Ve vězení začal být vážný a nevyzpytatelný. [started to be …]

8 Translation counterparts of English copular clauses A.Zero (overall semantic correspondence maintained but no identifiable explicit counterpart of copular predicate identifiable) B.Overt: Verbal lexical verb (semantic class) copular verb (být, stát se) catenative construction (začít [start] / přestat [cease] + inf.) Verbal prefix Verbo-nominal (mít pocit) Adverbial (epistemic, time) Clausal (comment clause)

9 Translation counterparts of English copular clauses – exx I A.Zero Bullstrode, Millicent then became a Slytherin. Bullstrodeovou, Millicent (object) zařadil klobouk (subject) do Zmijozelu B.M. was placed in Slytherin by the hat. B.Overt: Verbal lexical verb (semantic class) it seemed a place rather than a time vnímá to spíš jako místo než čas she perceives it … copular verb (být, stát se) it seems unfair to ask a young woman to make judgements so crucial to her future happiness … je nespravedlivé chtít po mladé ženě, aby se rozhodovala o svém budoucím štěstí … it is catenative construction (začít / přestat + inf.) As they entered November, the weather turned very cold. Jak nastal listopad, začalo být velice chladno. started to be

10 Translation counterparts of English copular clauses – exx II Verbal prefix Neville went bright red … Neville zrudl jako krocan … Verbo-nominal He felt very strange. Měl velice podivný pocit. had a very strange feeling Adverbial (epistemic) Ichiro seemed to consider this for a moment. Ičiró o tom zjevně chvíli uvažoval. apparently Clausal Noriko, however, seems very proud of her apartment … Noriko je však, jak se mi zdá, na svůj byt velice hrdá … it seems to me

11 One of the most fascinating aspects of multi-lingual corpora is that they can make meanings visible through translation patterns. (Johansson 2007)

12 totalzeroverbalvb- nom. adverbialclau- sal lexical verbcopular verbcate- nat. prefix res. episttmp / man re-sult.per- cept. oth.stát sebýt become turn go fall grow get come prove appear look seem sound feel taste remain continue stay keep total

13 totalzeroverbalvb- nom. adverbialclau- sal lexical verbcopular verbcate- nat. prefix res. episttmp / man re-sult.per- cept. oth.stát sebýt become turn go fall grow get come prove appear look seem sound feel taste remain continue stay keep total

14 become, turn, go, fall, get, grow, come, prove 1. Daddy's gone mad, hasn't he? Tatínek se zbláznil, viď? 2. … Father must be going blind Tatínkovi zřejmě slábne zrak. 3.a. Harry thought the blood seemed to be getting thicker. Harry si říkal, že i krvavé skvrny jsou větší. 3.b. I'm getting so frightened, Ichiro, I can hardly eat, …. Já už jsem tak vyděšená, že ani jíst nemůžu, …. 4. She grew harsh with herself and the patients. Začala být k sobě i pacientům drsnější. 5. Their like will never fall victim to the sort of grand catastrophe that … Takoví se nikdy nestanou obětí katastrofy, jaká ….

15 Remain, continue, stay, keep 1. As I remember, supper continued to proceed in a most satisfactory manner. Pokud se pamatuji, probíhala večeře klidně a příjemně. 2. Mori-san remained absorbed by his pictures. Mori-san si dál zkoumavě prohlížel obrázky. 3. He stays awake in any case this night, to see if the figure moves towards him. Zůstává tu noc v každém případě vzhůru, aby viděl, zda se postava pohne směrem k němu.

16 Appear, look, seem, sound, feel, taste 1. … and it seemed to her a reversal of Kim … a připadalo jí to jako Kim naruby. 2. he seems capable in that category. je zřejmě v tomhle směru schopný. 3. Well, your mother for one doesn't seem to think so. No, například tvoje maminka si to nemyslí.

17 Epistemic modification As if A soft rustling and clinking seemed to be coming from up ahead. Zepředu jako by k nim doléhalo tiché šustění a cinkání. Adverbials: zřejmě, očividně, zjevně, zdánlivě, nejspíš, asi, možná, nepochybně … they seemed to think he might get dangerous ideas. … nejspíš si mysleli, že by ho to mohlo přivést na nebezpečné nápady.

18 Tracing the function English copular verbs Czech prefix Czech modal adverbial Czech lexical vb Czech copula etc. English copula English modal vb. English modal adv. English modal adj. English comment clause zero

19 Epistemic adverbials: zřejmě, očividně, zjevně, zdánlivě, nejspíš, asi, možná, nepochybně English originals English translations Σ(%)Σ modal adv copular vbs modal vbs comment cl modal adj zero Adverbials: obviously, apparently, clearly, seemingly, no doubt, of course, probably, patently Copular vbs: seem, appear, look Different preferences in different languages (paradigms of choice vs patterns of choice)

20 The experiencer … the sense verbs and verbs of seeming license a to phrase where the oblique NP expresses the experiencer. (Huddleston & Pullum, 263) seem: somebody or something gives the experiencer the impression of being something or doing something. (Johansson, 118) English originals > Czech translations: expression of the experiencer by the dative, corresponding to the English to-PP, is about 4.6 times more frequent than explicit reference to the experiencer in the original English texts. To one as young as you, I'm sure it seems incredible … Někomu tak mladému jako ty to jistě zní neuvěřitelně …

21 The experiencer More frequently overt in Czech: Obligatory complement with some verbs of perception It felt as though he was sitting on some sort of plant. Připadalo mu, že snad sedí na nějaké rostlině. Optional with others – different preferences After what seemed an age, she turned and left. Zdálo se jim, že to trvá celou věčnost, pak se však paní Norrisová otočila a vyšla ven.

22 CzechEnglish become10 turn10 go40 fall00 get00 grow00 come10 prove00 appear91 look72 seem4317 sound60 feel251 taste00 remain00 continue00 stay10 keep The dative: d. (in)commodi 1. The cut had turned a nasty shade of green. Rána mu ošklivě zezelenala; 2. Wood was now looking as though all his dreams had come true at once. Wood se teď tvářil, jako by se mu naráz splnily všecky jeho sny. 3. … that its details have stayed imprinted on my memory že se mi ve všech podrobnostech vryl do paměti

23 English originals English translations Czech translations Czech originals Using bi-directional parallel corpora making meanings visible through translation patterns (Johansson) making it possible to proceed from function to its realization form different preferences in different languages: paradigmatic choice vs patterns of choice (Neumann) the source text can leave its mark on the translation (overuse / underuse) surprises

24 References Biber, D. et al. (1999) The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman. Dušková, L. (2004) Syntactic constancy of the subject complement, Part 1: A comparison between Czech and English. Linguistica Pragensia XIV/2, pp Dušková, L. (2005) Syntactic constancy of the subject complement, Part 2: A comparison between English and Czech. Linguistica Pragensia XV/1, pp Huddleston, R. & G. Pullum (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: CUP. Johansson, S. (2007) Seeing through multilingual corpora. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Pustet, R. (2003) Copulas. Universals in the Categorization of the Lexicon. Oxford: OUP. Quirk, R. et al. (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.


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