Presentation on theme: "COMPLEX OBJECT COMPLEX SUBJECT. Complex Object noun (Mum, teacher) + a verb (wants) + pronoun (him..) + infinitive/bare infinitive (to do his homework)"— Presentation transcript:
COMPLEX OBJECT COMPLEX SUBJECT
Complex Object noun (Mum, teacher) + a verb (wants) + pronoun (him..) + infinitive/bare infinitive (to do his homework)
Complex Object In Russian Complex Object will be translated as a subordinate clause with conjunctions что, как, чтобы
Example: I wanted the director of this TNC to stop the work of this sweatshop. (noun in the common case) She made him buy her a new car. (pronoun in the objective case)
The verbs used with Complex Object wish & intention: to wish, to want, to desire, would like, to mean, to intend, to choose mental activity (generally with the verb to be) to know, to expect, to believe, to think, to consider, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust
Examples I I want you to start for the trip immediately. I didnt mean him to learn the dialogue by heart. I dont choose you to live in the hotel.
Examples II I know him to be the most unscrupulous man I ever knew. If you suppose this young lady to be intelligent enough, youre definitely mistaken. Everybody expected her to marry Tom. The doctor found Petes heart to have stopped 2 hours before. (perfect infinitive for prior actions)
NB! The verbs to think, to consider, to find can be used without an infinitive!!! He thought her beautiful. I found the key idea of the lection interesting.
feelings & emotions: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cant stand/bear e.g. I dislike you to talk like that. I cant bear you to behave so nasty! order & permission + compulsion: to order, to allow, to let, to ask for, to force to have, to suffer, to get, to make, to cause e.g. She ordered the car to be ready by 6 oclock. James suffered his wife to wear such short skirts. (разрешать неохотно, скрепя сердце) I wont have you speak like that! (close to to suffer in the meaning) NB! The underlined words dont take TO-inf in active voice! In Passive voice to let is substituted with to allow!
Compulsion (заставить, распорядиться, добиться) Her steps made him turn his head. (!!! bare inf) The noise caused her to awake. She caused the telegramme to be sent at once. I cant get her to start doing homework. I had her go there. (!!!bare inf)
sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice !!! These verbs in the Active Voice are used with BARE Infinitive !!! In the Passive voice the particle TO appears! e.g. I felt the blood rush into my cheeks. I saw Jim enter the room.
Note 1 NOT If to see means to understand Complex Object is NOT used! I saw that he didnt realize the danger. Note 2 If to hear means to learn, to be told, a clause or a gerund is used I hear that he left for the South/of his leaving for the South.
After the verbs to know and to help both variants of the infinitive can follow!!! In modern English a bare infinitive is more common. But in Passive Voice the TO-inf is used! Ive never known him (to) be so mean. Could you help me (to) fix the car? She was known to have worked as a teacher.
The verbs used with a bare infinitive in Active Voice to make, to force, to have (compulsion) to let (in Passive to allow is used instead) to see, to hear, to watch, to observe, to notice to feel In Passive Voice they take TO-inf after
Compare Complex Object + Infinitive Complex Object + Participle I I saw him enter the room. I noticed him frown. I felt her tremble. I heard her speak. I saw him entering the bar. I noticed him frowning. I felt her trembling. I heard her speaking.
Complex Subject noun/pronoun + is said/is believed/turns out etc + infinitive/perfect infinitive In all voices we use CS with particle TO !!!
In Russian Complex Subject sounds like неопределенно-личное предложение (говорят, считают, известно…) Complex Subject is used with : …is said to …is heard to …is seen to …is known to …is reported to …is expected to …is believed to …is considered etc…
to see, to feel, to hear…- sense perception to know, to expect, to believe…- mental activity to make, to order, to force…- order, request, permission to say, to inform, to report to appear, to seem, to happen, to prove, to turn out to be likely, to be sure, to be certain
Complex Subject Personal Impersonal He is know (to be) It is known (that) a liar. he is a liar.
Examples He was heard to laugh merrily. Annes father was heard approaching at that moment (to express the process we use Participle I) He was believed to be honest and intelligent. Julie was made to take part in the trip. She is said to have become famous. (completed action) The child seems to be asleep.