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Tasks and Technology in Language Learning: Elective Affinities and (Dis)encounters Lourdes Ortega University of Hawaii at M ā noa 3 rd International Task-Based.

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Presentation on theme: "Tasks and Technology in Language Learning: Elective Affinities and (Dis)encounters Lourdes Ortega University of Hawaii at M ā noa 3 rd International Task-Based."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tasks and Technology in Language Learning: Elective Affinities and (Dis)encounters Lourdes Ortega University of Hawaii at M ā noa 3 rd International Task-Based Language Teaching Conference. Lancaster, September 13-16, 2009

2 Thanks to the organizers: Martin Bygate Judit Kormos Andrea Révész Virginia Samuda

3 Powerpoint can be downloaded from my website.

4 I am not a techy… more like a technophobe…

5 In fact… (Ortega, 1997, 2009; Ortega & Zyzik, 2008) Temperance & empirical qualification needed… Euphoric discourse Idyllic images

6 But we do live in a digital society…

7 Gadgets, e.g., iphones : -ing: Emailing Internet surfing Web page viewing, maintaining, creating Skyping Chatting Blogging Instant messaging Texting Gaming sites: Facebook Newsgroups Wikis with Internet, email, M ultimedia M essage S ervice, S hort M essage S ervice, recording, voice control, photo making, video making, and many app lication s ervers

8 Coming of age with the Internet McMillan & Morrison (2006) I use it all the time, and I believe that my life would be very different without it. I would not be able to look up the things that I wanted to without calling to get a brochure, going to the library, or ordering a book or catalog. My phone bills would be extremely high, and I would not talk to my mom as much. I really do not see what people did before the internet was invented.

9 … Information & Communication Technologies have changed: the nature of everyday communication the educational contexts afforded to our students opportunities for L2 learning

10 Tasks and Technology Skehan (2003) Doughty & Long (2003)

11 Technology and Tasks Chapelle (2003) Reinders & White (in press)

12 My interest and focus for today?

13 … affordances harnessed for L2 learners to support: Language (Chapelle, 2003) Culture (Belz & Thorne, 2006) Digital literacies (Warschauer, 2006) Identities (Lam, 2000)

14 The social and humanistic (but not technocratic) value of educational technologies (Friesen & Feenberg, 2007) The social, educational, and pragmatic (but not vulgar utilitarian) value of tasks in L2 learning (Norris, 2009; Samuda & Bygate, 2008; Van den Branden, 2006)

15 Tasks and New Technologies present many (realized and potential) elective affinities

16 certain chemicals attract each other and bond into a novel compound ~~ ~~ human chemistry ~~ ~~ Eduard & Charlotte The Captain & Ottilie Die Wahlverwandtschaften (1809)

17 Paolo Taviani (1996) Le affinità elettive (Isabelle Huppert as Carlotta) René Magrittes Elective Affinities (1933)

18 Affinities between tasks & technology

19 Two affinities

20 Affinity 1: Affordances

21 … LLT and TBLT most unique affordances: Motivation Authenticity Choice Feedback Community

22 Some examples

23 J. & K. Collentine (K. Collentine, 2009)

24 M. González-Lloret (2003, 2007)

25 Tight theorization of these five affordances would benefit LLT and TBLT in the future Motivation Authenticity Choice Feedback Community

26 Affinity 2: Theoretical base

27 … to do things with words… … in order to learn an additional language designing environments… … to do things with words supported by communication technologies… LLT TBLT

28 doing things with words LLTTBLT Emphasis on DOING language… Emphasis on learning BY DOING…

29 Emphasis on DOING language

30 Obvious theoretical links of TBLT with use-oriented theories of SLA

31 Peter Robinson Peter Skehan Processing Trade-off HypothesisCognition Hypothesis TBLT -specific:

32 Language used Cognition Doing Language learned

33 TBLT -complementary : Interaction in SLA Pica Gass Mackey McDonough

34 Attention Language used Interactional Doing Language learned

35 LLT work at TBLT 2009: Interaction Monday Maria-Elena Solares-Altamirano Yu-Chuan Joni Chao Ann Keller-Lally Shannon Sauro Tuesday Nik Aloesnita Nik Mohd Alwi & Rebecca Adams Yuksei & Yu Task complexity L2 learning

36 Cross-fertilization in a certain direction LLT TBLTSLA

37 But we also have TBLT–expanding theories, or broader use-oriented SLA theories…

38 Systemic-Functional Linguistic theory Mohan (1986, 1992) Byrnes (2006)

39 CA-for-SLA and other discourse- based theories of L2 learning John Hellermann (2008) Simona Pekarek-Doehler (& Ziegler 2007)

40 Are they incommensurable or complementary …? (Tuesday, 2:00pm)

41 Sociocultural theoretical influences on LLT are particularly rich

42 Open University group: Robin Goodfellow, Marie-Nöelle Lamy, Regine Hampel

43 also in Europe: Andreas Müller-Hartmann, James Simpson, Gabriela Adela Gánem Gutiérrez

44 In the US: Carla Meskill Mark Warschauer Steven Thorne

45 LLT SCT TBLT Sociocultural LLT TBLT Reversed engineered influence?

46 Emphasis on learning by DOING

47 John Dewey (1938) Experience and Education Explicit acknowledgement: Norris (2009), Samuda & Bygate (2008), Van den Branden et al., 2009) In TBLT, educational philosophies of experiential learning

48 Obvious and sustained theoretical links of LLT with experiential learning theories from ICT and Ed Tech

49 David & Alice Kolbs Experiential Learning Theory ELT

50 experiential learning theories LLTTBLT ICT Ed Tech Another reversed engineered influence?

51 Two Affinities 1: Affordances 2: Theoretical base

52 (Dis)Encounters between tasks & technology

53 1.A happy encounter 2.An inexplicable disencounter 3.Tasks-in-Technology 4.Technology-in-Tasks

54 A happy encounter: CMC & TB interaction research

55 Negotiation for Meaning in TB LLT Jill Pellettieri (2000-CUP) Bob Blake (2000-LL&T) Bryan Smith (2003-MLJ) M. González-Lloret (2003)

56 (Ortega, 2009) Fundamental similarities NfM does happen in CMC as in F-t-F Fundamental differences disrupted turn adjacency split negotiation routines (Smith, 2003), non-contingent recasts (Lai & Zhao, 2006), delayed uptake (Smith, 2005) lean medium more explicit marking of communicative trouble (Fernández-García & Martínez Arbelaiz, 2003) Negative impact on noticing? Positive impact on noticing?

57 How much NfM? 1 or 2 episodes.................................. +30% of all turns per session/dyad Task as a source of such huge variability? (Ortega, 2009)

58 Attention to form in TB LLT: Dyadic CMC Chun Lai (Lai & Zhao, 2006; Lai et al., 2008) Bryan Smith (2005-TQ)

59 Shannon Sauro (2009) Iwasaki & Oliver (2003)

60 Attention to form in TB LLT: Teacher/tutor-mediated CMC Shawn Loewen, Rosemary Erlam, et al. (Loewen & Erlam, 2006; Loewen & Reissner, 2009)

61 Fundamental similarities re. negative feedback Recasts overwhelmingly preferred to more explicit corrections Uptake results inconclusive Some (tentative) differences Amounts of negative feedback are more often than not reported lower on CMC than F-t-F (although there is high variability across studies) CMC factors may damp noticing: non-contingent, incorporated recasts (Lai et al., 2008) (Ortega, 2009) Insufficient accumulated evidence, so many more questions than answers

62 Neglected role of tasks Strangely, many pending questions may involve task explanations, but no seeming effort at studying tasks per se

63 An inexplicable disencounter: Where is CAF in TB CMC ?

64 e.g., Zsuzsanna I. Abrams, Olaf Böhlke, David Coniam, Michael Fitze, Mark Freiermuth, Ann Keller-Lally, Lina Lee, Susana Sotillo, Rafael Salaberry, Ilona Vandergriff Research on complexity/richness of L2 practice in CMC (Ortega, 1997) Educational benefits CMC may be an equalizer of participation SLA benefits egalitarian participation may bring about higher productivity and more complex discourse SLA fears accuracy may suffer But no precise application of either CAF research measures (Housen & Kuiken, 2009) or TB cognitive frameworks (Skehan vs. Robinson)

65 However, a definite concern with accuracy & CMC for L2 learning Might task design matter after all?

66 (2003) (2007) n=27 8 weeks 120 sessions 10,644 turns 232 NfM (10%) 1.9 NfM/session n=9 2 semesters 49 sessions 3,687 turns 61 NfM (9%) 1.2 NfM /session Enza Tudini, University of South Australia


68 Tudini (2003)Tudini (2007) Students were simply asked to chat with NS with a view to evaluating the live chat as a possible teaching and learning tool (p. 148). required to submit their best 6 sessions for evaluation assignment = 10% of course grade encouraged explicitly to seek assistance from the L1 chatters given a list of cross-cultural topics to use during the chat conversations Task design...

69 CMC task design does matter Negotiate-over-lexis-first principle countered with post-task stakes? (Skehan & Foster, 1997)

70 Just instructions may help foreground a focus on language form… Paige Ware & Rob ODowd (2008) asynchronous feedback on form LREs for partnering vs. tutoring e-conditions

71 Maybe things will begin to change?

72 Ann Keller-Lally jig-saw vs. decision- making vs. opinion exchange Nik Aloesnita Nik Mohd Alwi & Rebecca Adams CAF Shannon Sauro Syntactic complexity lexical richness

73 Karina Collentine (2009, LL&T) interrupted & uninterrupted reasoning & interaction cycles

74 Encounter or disencounter? Tasks-in-technology

75 Tasks-in-technology, neglected dimension … the large majority of studies of CMC […] deal with task design only tangentially and teachers frequently transfer tasks used in face-to-face settings to online environments without adapting them to the new setting (Regine Hampel, 2006, p. 106)

76 Bryan Smith Jig-saw taskDecision-making task Jointly decide on 4 gifts for 4 members of home stay family in the US (a) Each student has specific parameters and 4 gift suggestions, all of which must be negotiated into consensus; (b) End with discussion of gift- giving customs in your countries Each student has 3 different pictures – (a) Describe all 6 to sequence them into a bus trip story; (b) End with discussion of public transportation in the US and your countries.

77 Smith (2003, 2005): Seeded target words

78 jig-saw tasks: info-gap with closed solution Smith (2003): Each student has 3 different pictures Describe all 6 and sequence them into a bus trip story; discuss public transportation in the US and your countries. Blake (2000) Share the activities from two different personal calendars: Antonio Banderas and Madonna. Identify the events done in common by the two people. Then develop a story written in the past about those common activities. Blake (2000): Find an apartment in Madrid by sharing Web ads and personal preferences (see URL). Summarize the results using TEXTPAD.

79 discussion tasks: info-gap with open-ended Freiermuth (2001) Discuss which of 4 cities in the US would be ideal for opening a new business (with parameters) Sauro (2009): Write each other on one of two themes (Swedish culture or global warming) and use bank of related words, including 10 abstract nouns Freiermuth & Jarrell (2006): Plan out three ways to spend a 500,000 yen gift certificate and decide which way is better and why. Fitze (2006): Discussion of essay topics prior to writing (e.g., professional sporting) Vandergriff (2006): The moral dilemma of the Alligator River Story (used originally by Gee, 1989) Dekhinet (2008): Browse through a website with many links about Scottish culture and discuss them with your chat pal. Sachs & Suh (2007): Read L1 story, retell in L2 with sequenced pictures & lexical help (to NS chat pal) Blake (2000): Find an apartment in Madrid by sharing Web ads and personal preferences (see URL). Summarize the results using TEXTPAD.

80 from tasks to projects…?

81 Task-based e-mail tandem exchange Appel & Gilabert (2002) e.g, (4-week task): A night out in Barcelona/Dublin GOAL: route and budget for a night out on a trip to Barcelona or Dublin Discussed places where young people go out in their own towns e-mailed tandem partners with options and description of their usual routine on a weekend night Decided on what places they would like to go to on the hypothetical night out in Barcelona or Dublin, drew a budget for the night scanned entrance tickets, leaflets, etc for the venues and shared them on webpage OUTCOME: presentation of their final planned night out

82 Task-based email exchanges probably afford more language productivity and affective engagement than conversational email exchanges Appel & Gilabert (2006)

83 Task-based email-mediated role-play Leahy (2004) BA European business students (L2 German), 3 to 4 weeks : GOAL: develop a marketing strategy for how to introduce a product to a new market 5 f-t-f dyads communicating through email each dyad took on different roles in charge of different elements of the whole task/goal Internet used as a source for task data OUTCOME: presentation of results by dyads orally, per individual in written summary

84 Develop marketing strategy Dyad 1 : UK company Christmas pudding Dyads 3, 4, 5 : Research assistants to Dyads 1 & 2 3-Similar products on WWW 4-Market conditions 5-Cultural & economic problem shooting Dyad 2 : German marketing company Consultant to Dyad 1

85 new questions: Pedagogy: What are the consequences of changing from tasks to projects? Research: How do we investigate projects from TBLT perspectives?

86 Reinders & White (in press) Whats needed to understand and inform the design of sociocollaborative tasks in multimodal environments? Theoretical pluralism Interactionist as well as sociocultural theories + ICT & CMC theories of medium

87 So, maybe tasks-in-technology… an improvised encounter thus far… but one with a future

88 An imminent encounter: Technology-in-tasks

89 Cognitivist preference for control & structure, but… less structured, more inquiry-based task space encourages learners to exercise agency and enact identities, to do learning from sociocultural and social semiotic perspectives that address the whole learner (Marie-Nöelle Lamy, 2007)

90 Lamy & Goodfellows Simuligne project (group competition) Imagine, design, and create a French city with the necessary attributes to host a residential course Create self-character for the city and describe community role Invent history and anthem of city Visit all cities and vote to choose recipient of city award Imagination

91 Task-based NetMeeting- mediated web creation project Levy & Kennedy (2004)

92 4 Australian students (L2 Italian) : GOAL (chosen by participants): produce web pages for the Italian Studies site of these students university Useful to students (in Australia) visiting Bologna and Perugia for a certain period of time With live material (audio & video) collected from informants in cities

93 conferencing software e.g., NetMeeting, with text/audio chat, graphics, & desktop sharing jointly browsing of the same on-screen material (e.g., websites) while talking jointly creating documents & alternating the control of the application

94 Task-based mobile phone interactions Kiernan & Aizawa (2004)

95 Narrative & invitation tasks done via: (a)F-t-f, (b) PC email, (c) mobile phone email Less language produced via mobile phone email (using thumb pad), but Similar approach to task And most motivating: Most students wanted to experience the mobile phone email condition

96 Importance of social context for technologies Only 4 of 54 Japanese college participants did not own a mobile phone with email Almost all 50 owners used mobile phone daily and primarily for texting and emailing Many Japanese college students know how to use the mobile thumb pad to text but not a PC keyboard In Japan & Europe, speaking on mobile phones is expensive, texting is cheap (the opposite is true in the US)

97 Part of the difficulty in drawing conclusions within CMC research is that results are often based on tasks or laboratory experiments that do not easily generalize to the real world (Luppicini, 2007, p. 174) Alternative, more real-world: Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments

98 The look to the future: Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments

99 James GeeMarc Prensky

100 Sage Routledge Sage

101 In LLT too D. Zheng (Zheng et al. 2009) Douglas Coleman (2002) NfM… Negotiation for Action

102 from tasks to projects… to virtual worlds…?

103 From Always-On to Always-There (de Lange, 2009) How tractable for existing TBLT frameworks? here-and-now vs. there-and-then time-less & space-less Always On (Baron, 2008)

104 Gaming, simulations, & other immersive new technologies Motivation Authenticity Choice Feedback Community

105 tasks & technology Affinities (Dis)encounters What does the future hold?

106 René Magrittes Elective Affinities (1933) unfulfilled potentials… trapped within superficial barriers (blescarmona, 2009)

107 Will the TBLT and LLT research communities break away from superficial barriers?… Will future research fulfill the potential between tasks and technology?

108 Thank You

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114 Please cite as: Ortega, L. (2009). Tasks and Technology in Language Learning: Elective Affinities and (Dis)encounters. Plenary delivered at the 3 rd International Task-Based Language Teaching Conference. Lancaster, September 13-16. Copyright © Lourdes Ortega, 2009

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