Presentation on theme: "University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa"— Presentation transcript:
1University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Tasks and Technology in Language Learning: Elective Affinities and (Dis)encountersLourdes OrtegaUniversity of Hawai‘i at Mānoa3rd International Task-Based Language Teaching Conference. Lancaster, September 13-16, 2009
2Thanks to the organizers: Martin BygateJudit KormosAndrea RévészVirginia Samuda
7sites:FacebookNewsgroupsWikis-ing:ingInternet surfingWeb page viewing, maintaining, creatingSkypingChattingBloggingInstant messagingTextingGamingGadgets, e.g., iphones:with Internet, , MultimediaMessageService, ShortMessageService, recording, voice control, photo making, video making, and many applicationservers
8“Coming of age with the Internet” McMillan & Morrison (2006) I use it all the time, and I believe that my life would be very different without it. I would not be able to look up the things that I wanted to without calling to get a brochure, going to the library, or ordering a book or catalog. My phone bills would be extremely high, and I would not talk to my mom as much. I really do not see what people did before the internet was invented .
9… Information & Communication Technologies have changed: the nature of everyday communicationthe educational contexts afforded to our studentsopportunities for L2 learning
10Tasks and TechnologyDoughty & Long (2003)Skehan (2003)
11Technology and TasksChapelle (2003)Reinders & White (in press)
13… affordances harnessed for L2 learners to support: Language (Chapelle, 2003)“Culture” (Belz & Thorne, 2006)Digital literacies (Warschauer, 2006)Identities (Lam, 2000)
14The social and humanistic (but not technocratic) value of educational technologies (Friesen & Feenberg, 2007)The social, educational, and pragmatic (but not vulgar utilitarian) value of tasks in L2 learning(Norris, 2009; Samuda & Bygate, 2008; Van den Branden, 2006)
15Tasks and New Technologies “elective affinities” present many (realized and potential)“elective affinities”
16Die Wahlverwandtschaften (1809) certain chemicalsattract each other andbond into a novelcompound~~ ~~ “human chemistry” ~~ ~~Eduard & CharlotteThe Captain & Ottilie
17Elective Affinities (1933) René Magritte‘sElective Affinities (1933)Paolo Taviani(1996) Le affinità elettive(Isabelle Huppert as Carlotta)
27… in order to learn an additional language LLTTBLTdesigning environments…… to do things with words supported by communication technologies…… to do things with words…… in order to learn an additional language
28“doing things with words” TBLTLLT“doing things with words”Emphasis on DOING language…Emphasis on learning BY DOING…
60Attention to form in TB LLT: Teacher/tutor-mediated CMC Shawn Loewen, Rosemary Erlam, et al.(Loewen & Erlam, 2006; Loewen & Reissner, 2009)
61Insufficient accumulated evidence, so many more questions than answers (Ortega, 2009)Fundamental similarities re. negative feedbackRecasts overwhelmingly preferred to more explicit correctionsUptake results inconclusiveSome (tentative) differences Amounts of negative feedback are more often than not reported lower on CMC than F-t-F (although there is high variability across studies)CMC factors may damp noticing: non-contingent, incorporated recasts (Lai et al., 2008)Insufficient accumulated evidence, so many more questions than answers
62Neglected role of tasks Strangely, many pending questions may involve task explanations,but no seeming effort at studying tasks per se
63An inexplicable disencounter: Where is CAF in TB CMC?
64or TB cognitive frameworks Research on “complexity/richness” of L2 practice in CMC (Ortega, 1997)Educational benefits CMC may be an equalizer of participationSLA benefits egalitarian participation may bring about higher productivity and more complex discourseSLA fears accuracy may sufferBut no precise application of either CAF research measures (Housen & Kuiken, 2009)or TB cognitive frameworks(Skehan vs. Robinson)e.g., Zsuzsanna I. Abrams, Olaf Böhlke, David Coniam, Michael Fitze, Mark Freiermuth, Ann Keller-Lally, Lina Lee, Susana Sotillo, Rafael Salaberry, Ilona Vandergriff
65Might task design matter after all? However, a definite concern with accuracy & CMC for L2 learningMight task design matter after all?
66Enza Tudini, University of South Australia (2003)(2007)n=92 semesters49 sessions3,687 turns61 NfM (9%)1.2 NfM/sessionn=278 weeks120 sessions10,644 turns232 NfM (10%)1.9 NfM/sessionEnza Tudini, University of South Australia
68Task design...Tudini (2003)Tudini (2007)“Students were simply asked to chat with NS with a view to evaluating the live chat as a possible teaching and learning tool” (p. 148).required to submit their best 6 sessions for evaluationassignment = 10% of course gradeencouraged explicitly to seek assistance from the L1 chattersgiven a list of cross-cultural topics to use during the chat conversations
69CMC task design does matter Negotiate-over-lexis-first principle countered with post-task stakes?(Skehan & Foster, 1997)
70Just instructions may help “foreground a focus on language form”… Paige Ware & Rob O’Dowd (2008)asynchronous feedback on form LREs for “partnering” vs. “tutoring” e-conditions
75Tasks-in-technology, neglected dimension “… the large majority of studies of CMC […] deal with task design only tangentially and teachers frequently transfer tasks used in face-to-facesettings to online environments without adapting them to the new setting”(Regine Hampel, 2006, p. 106)
76Bryan Smith Jig-saw task Decision-making task Each student has 3 different pictures –(a) Describe all 6 to sequence them into a “bus trip” story;(b) End with discussion of public transportation in the US and your countries.Jointly decide on 4 gifts for 4 members of home stay family in the US(a) Each student has specific parameters and 4 gift suggestions, all of which must be negotiated into consensus;(b) End with discussion of gift-giving customs in your countries
78“jig-saw tasks”: info-gap with closed solution Blake (2000):Find an apartment in Madrid by sharing Web ads and personal preferences (see URL). Summarize the results using TEXTPAD.Blake (2000)Share the activities from two different personal calendars: Antonio Banderas and Madonna. Identify the events done in common by the two people. Then develop a story written in the past about those common activities.“jig-sawtasks”:info-gap withclosedsolutionSmith (2003):Each student has 3 different pictures Describe all 6 and sequence them into a “bus trip” story; discuss public transportation in the US and your countries.
79“discussion tasks”: info-gap with open-ended Freiermuth & Jarrell (2006):Plan out three ways to spend a 500,000 yen gift certificate and decide which way is better and why.Blake (2000):Find an apartment in Madrid by sharing Web ads and personal preferences (see URL). Summarize the results using TEXTPAD.Vandergriff (2006):The moral dilemma of the Alligator River Story (used originally by Gee, 1989)Sauro (2009):Write each other on one of two themes (Swedish culture or global warming) and use bank of related words, including 10 abstract nounsFreiermuth (2001)Discuss which of 4 cities in the US would be ideal for opening a new business (with parameters)“discussiontasks”:info-gap withopen-endedFitze (2006):Discussion of essay topics prior to writing (e.g., professional sporting)Dekhinet (2008):Browse through a website with many links aboutScottish culture and discuss them with your chat pal.Sachs & Suh (2007):Read L1 story, retell in L2 with sequenced pictures & lexical help (to NS chat pal)
81Task-based e-mail tandem exchange Appel & Gilabert (2002)Task-based tandem exchangee.g, (4-week task):A night out in Barcelona/DublinGOAL: route and budget for a night out on a trip to Barcelona or DublinDiscussed places where young people go out in their own townsed tandem partners with options and description of their usual routine on a weekend nightDecided on what places they would like to go to on the hypothetical night out in Barcelona or Dublin, drew a budget for the nightscanned entrance tickets, leaflets, etc for the venues and shared them on webpageOUTCOME: presentation of their final planned night out
82Appel & Gilabert (2006)Task-based exchanges probably afford more language productivity and affective engagement than conversational exchanges
83Task-based email-mediated role-play Leahy (2004)Task-based -mediated role-playBA European business students (L2 German), 3 to 4 weeks:GOAL: develop a marketing strategy for how to introduce a product to a new market5 f-t-f dyads communicating througheach dyad took on different roles in charge of different elements of the whole task/goalInternet used as a source for task dataOUTCOME: presentation of results by dyads orally, per individual in written summary
85new questions:Pedagogy: What are the consequences of changing from tasks to projects?Research: How do we investigate projects from TBLT perspectives?
86Reinders & White (in press) What’s needed to understand and inform the design of sociocollaborative tasks in multimodal environments?Theoretical pluralismInteractionist as well as sociocultural theories + ICT & CMC theories of medium
87tasks-in-technology… So, maybetasks-in-technology…an improvised encounter thus far… but one with a future
89Cognitivist preference for control & structure, but… less structured, more inquiry-based task space encourages learners to exercise agency and enact identities, to do learning from sociocultural and social semiotic perspectives that address the “whole” learner(Marie-Nöelle Lamy, 2007)
90Imagination Lamy & Goodfellow’s Simuligne project (group competition) Imagine, design, and create a French city with the necessary attributes to host a residential courseCreate self-character for the city and describe community roleInvent history and anthem of cityVisit all cities and vote to choose recipient of city awardImagination
91Task-based NetMeeting-mediated web creation project Levy & Kennedy (2004)Task-based NetMeeting-mediated web creation project
924 Australian students (L2 Italian): Levy & Kennedy (2004)4 Australian students (L2 Italian):GOAL (chosen by participants): produce web pages for the Italian Studies site of these students’ universityUseful to students (in Australia) visiting Bologna and Perugia for a certain period of timeWith “live” material (audio & video) collected from informants in cities
93conferencing software e.g., NetMeeting, with text/audio chat, graphics, & desktop sharingjointly browsing of the same on-screen material (e.g., websites) while talkingjointly creating documents & alternating the control of the application
94Task-based mobile phone interactions Kiernan & Aizawa (2004)Task-based mobile phone interactions
95Narrative & invitation tasks done via: Kiernan & Aizawa (2004)Narrative & invitation tasks done via:F-t-f, (b) PC , (c) mobile phoneLess language produced via mobile phone (using thumb pad), butSimilar approach to taskAnd most motivating: Most students wanted to experience the mobile phone condition
96Importance of social context for technologies Only 4 of 54 Japanese college participants did not own a mobile phone withAlmost all 50 owners used mobile phone daily and primarily for texting and ingMany Japanese college students know how to use the mobile thumb pad to text but not a PC keyboardIn Japan & Europe, speaking on mobile phones is expensive, texting is cheap (the opposite is true in the US)
97Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments “Part of the difficulty in drawing conclusions within CMC research is that results are often based on tasks or laboratory experiments that do not easily generalize to the real world”(Luppicini, 2007, p. 174)Alternative, more “real-world”:Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments
98Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments The look to the future:Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments
103here-and-now vs. there-and-then How tractable for existing TBLT frameworks?here-and-now vs. there-and-thentime-less & space-less “Always On” (Baron, 2008)“From Always-On to Always-There”(de Lange, 2009)
104Gaming, simulations, & other immersive new technologies MotivationAuthenticityChoiceFeedbackCommunity
105Affinities (Dis)encounters tasks & technologyAffinities(Dis)encountersWhat does the future hold?
106Elective Affinities (1933) René Magritte‘sElective Affinities (1933)“unfulfilled potentials… trapped within superficial barriers” (blescarmona, 2009)
107Will future research fulfill the potential between tasks and technology? Will the TBLT and LLT research communities break away from superficial barriers?…
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