Presentation on theme: "Tasks and Technology in Language Learning: Elective Affinities and (Dis)encounters Lourdes Ortega University of Hawaii at M ā noa 3 rd International Task-Based."— Presentation transcript:
Tasks and Technology in Language Learning: Elective Affinities and (Dis)encounters Lourdes Ortega University of Hawaii at M ā noa 3 rd International Task-Based Language Teaching Conference. Lancaster, September 13-16, 2009
Thanks to the organizers: Martin Bygate Judit Kormos Andrea Révész Virginia Samuda
Gadgets, e.g., iphones : -ing: ing Internet surfing Web page viewing, maintaining, creating Skyping Chatting Blogging Instant messaging Texting Gaming sites: Facebook Newsgroups Wikis with Internet, , M ultimedia M essage S ervice, S hort M essage S ervice, recording, voice control, photo making, video making, and many app lication s ervers
Coming of age with the Internet McMillan & Morrison (2006) I use it all the time, and I believe that my life would be very different without it. I would not be able to look up the things that I wanted to without calling to get a brochure, going to the library, or ordering a book or catalog. My phone bills would be extremely high, and I would not talk to my mom as much. I really do not see what people did before the internet was invented.
… Information & Communication Technologies have changed: the nature of everyday communication the educational contexts afforded to our students opportunities for L2 learning
Tasks and Technology Skehan (2003) Doughty & Long (2003)
Technology and Tasks Chapelle (2003) Reinders & White (in press)
My interest and focus for today?
… affordances harnessed for L2 learners to support: Language (Chapelle, 2003) Culture (Belz & Thorne, 2006) Digital literacies (Warschauer, 2006) Identities (Lam, 2000)
The social and humanistic (but not technocratic) value of educational technologies (Friesen & Feenberg, 2007) The social, educational, and pragmatic (but not vulgar utilitarian) value of tasks in L2 learning (Norris, 2009; Samuda & Bygate, 2008; Van den Branden, 2006)
Tasks and New Technologies present many (realized and potential) elective affinities
certain chemicals attract each other and bond into a novel compound ~~ ~~ human chemistry ~~ ~~ Eduard & Charlotte The Captain & Ottilie Die Wahlverwandtschaften (1809)
Paolo Taviani (1996) Le affinità elettive (Isabelle Huppert as Carlotta) René Magrittes Elective Affinities (1933)
Affinities between tasks & technology
Affinity 1: Affordances
… LLT and TBLT most unique affordances: Motivation Authenticity Choice Feedback Community
J. & K. Collentine (K. Collentine, 2009)
M. González-Lloret (2003, 2007)
Tight theorization of these five affordances would benefit LLT and TBLT in the future Motivation Authenticity Choice Feedback Community
Affinity 2: Theoretical base
… to do things with words… … in order to learn an additional language designing environments… … to do things with words supported by communication technologies… LLT TBLT
doing things with words LLTTBLT Emphasis on DOING language… Emphasis on learning BY DOING…
Emphasis on DOING language
Obvious theoretical links of TBLT with use-oriented theories of SLA
Peter Robinson Peter Skehan Processing Trade-off HypothesisCognition Hypothesis TBLT -specific:
A happy encounter: CMC & TB interaction research
Negotiation for Meaning in TB LLT Jill Pellettieri (2000-CUP) Bob Blake (2000-LL&T) Bryan Smith (2003-MLJ) M. González-Lloret (2003)
(Ortega, 2009) Fundamental similarities NfM does happen in CMC as in F-t-F Fundamental differences disrupted turn adjacency split negotiation routines (Smith, 2003), non-contingent recasts (Lai & Zhao, 2006), delayed uptake (Smith, 2005) lean medium more explicit marking of communicative trouble (Fernández-García & Martínez Arbelaiz, 2003) Negative impact on noticing? Positive impact on noticing?
How much NfM? 1 or 2 episodes % of all turns per session/dyad Task as a source of such huge variability? (Ortega, 2009)
Attention to form in TB LLT: Dyadic CMC Chun Lai (Lai & Zhao, 2006; Lai et al., 2008) Bryan Smith (2005-TQ)
Shannon Sauro (2009) Iwasaki & Oliver (2003)
Attention to form in TB LLT: Teacher/tutor-mediated CMC Shawn Loewen, Rosemary Erlam, et al. (Loewen & Erlam, 2006; Loewen & Reissner, 2009)
Fundamental similarities re. negative feedback Recasts overwhelmingly preferred to more explicit corrections Uptake results inconclusive Some (tentative) differences Amounts of negative feedback are more often than not reported lower on CMC than F-t-F (although there is high variability across studies) CMC factors may damp noticing: non-contingent, incorporated recasts (Lai et al., 2008) (Ortega, 2009) Insufficient accumulated evidence, so many more questions than answers
Neglected role of tasks Strangely, many pending questions may involve task explanations, but no seeming effort at studying tasks per se
An inexplicable disencounter: Where is CAF in TB CMC ?
e.g., Zsuzsanna I. Abrams, Olaf Böhlke, David Coniam, Michael Fitze, Mark Freiermuth, Ann Keller-Lally, Lina Lee, Susana Sotillo, Rafael Salaberry, Ilona Vandergriff Research on complexity/richness of L2 practice in CMC (Ortega, 1997) Educational benefits CMC may be an equalizer of participation SLA benefits egalitarian participation may bring about higher productivity and more complex discourse SLA fears accuracy may suffer But no precise application of either CAF research measures (Housen & Kuiken, 2009) or TB cognitive frameworks (Skehan vs. Robinson)
However, a definite concern with accuracy & CMC for L2 learning Might task design matter after all?
(2003) (2007) n=27 8 weeks 120 sessions 10,644 turns 232 NfM (10%) 1.9 NfM/session n=9 2 semesters 49 sessions 3,687 turns 61 NfM (9%) 1.2 NfM /session Enza Tudini, University of South Australia
Tudini (2003)Tudini (2007) Students were simply asked to chat with NS with a view to evaluating the live chat as a possible teaching and learning tool (p. 148). required to submit their best 6 sessions for evaluation assignment = 10% of course grade encouraged explicitly to seek assistance from the L1 chatters given a list of cross-cultural topics to use during the chat conversations Task design...
CMC task design does matter Negotiate-over-lexis-first principle countered with post-task stakes? (Skehan & Foster, 1997)
Just instructions may help foreground a focus on language form… Paige Ware & Rob ODowd (2008) asynchronous feedback on form LREs for partnering vs. tutoring e-conditions
Maybe things will begin to change?
Ann Keller-Lally jig-saw vs. decision- making vs. opinion exchange Nik Aloesnita Nik Mohd Alwi & Rebecca Adams CAF Shannon Sauro Syntactic complexity lexical richness
Tasks-in-technology, neglected dimension … the large majority of studies of CMC […] deal with task design only tangentially and teachers frequently transfer tasks used in face-to-face settings to online environments without adapting them to the new setting (Regine Hampel, 2006, p. 106)
Bryan Smith Jig-saw taskDecision-making task Jointly decide on 4 gifts for 4 members of home stay family in the US (a) Each student has specific parameters and 4 gift suggestions, all of which must be negotiated into consensus; (b) End with discussion of gift- giving customs in your countries Each student has 3 different pictures – (a) Describe all 6 to sequence them into a bus trip story; (b) End with discussion of public transportation in the US and your countries.
Smith (2003, 2005): Seeded target words
jig-saw tasks: info-gap with closed solution Smith (2003): Each student has 3 different pictures Describe all 6 and sequence them into a bus trip story; discuss public transportation in the US and your countries. Blake (2000) Share the activities from two different personal calendars: Antonio Banderas and Madonna. Identify the events done in common by the two people. Then develop a story written in the past about those common activities. Blake (2000): Find an apartment in Madrid by sharing Web ads and personal preferences (see URL). Summarize the results using TEXTPAD.
discussion tasks: info-gap with open-ended Freiermuth (2001) Discuss which of 4 cities in the US would be ideal for opening a new business (with parameters) Sauro (2009): Write each other on one of two themes (Swedish culture or global warming) and use bank of related words, including 10 abstract nouns Freiermuth & Jarrell (2006): Plan out three ways to spend a 500,000 yen gift certificate and decide which way is better and why. Fitze (2006): Discussion of essay topics prior to writing (e.g., professional sporting) Vandergriff (2006): The moral dilemma of the Alligator River Story (used originally by Gee, 1989) Dekhinet (2008): Browse through a website with many links about Scottish culture and discuss them with your chat pal. Sachs & Suh (2007): Read L1 story, retell in L2 with sequenced pictures & lexical help (to NS chat pal) Blake (2000): Find an apartment in Madrid by sharing Web ads and personal preferences (see URL). Summarize the results using TEXTPAD.
from tasks to projects…?
Task-based tandem exchange Appel & Gilabert (2002) e.g, (4-week task): A night out in Barcelona/Dublin GOAL: route and budget for a night out on a trip to Barcelona or Dublin Discussed places where young people go out in their own towns ed tandem partners with options and description of their usual routine on a weekend night Decided on what places they would like to go to on the hypothetical night out in Barcelona or Dublin, drew a budget for the night scanned entrance tickets, leaflets, etc for the venues and shared them on webpage OUTCOME: presentation of their final planned night out
Task-based exchanges probably afford more language productivity and affective engagement than conversational exchanges Appel & Gilabert (2006)
Task-based -mediated role-play Leahy (2004) BA European business students (L2 German), 3 to 4 weeks : GOAL: develop a marketing strategy for how to introduce a product to a new market 5 f-t-f dyads communicating through each dyad took on different roles in charge of different elements of the whole task/goal Internet used as a source for task data OUTCOME: presentation of results by dyads orally, per individual in written summary
Develop marketing strategy Dyad 1 : UK company Christmas pudding Dyads 3, 4, 5 : Research assistants to Dyads 1 & 2 3-Similar products on WWW 4-Market conditions 5-Cultural & economic problem shooting Dyad 2 : German marketing company Consultant to Dyad 1
new questions: Pedagogy: What are the consequences of changing from tasks to projects? Research: How do we investigate projects from TBLT perspectives?
Reinders & White (in press) Whats needed to understand and inform the design of sociocollaborative tasks in multimodal environments? Theoretical pluralism Interactionist as well as sociocultural theories + ICT & CMC theories of medium
So, maybe tasks-in-technology… an improvised encounter thus far… but one with a future
An imminent encounter: Technology-in-tasks
Cognitivist preference for control & structure, but… less structured, more inquiry-based task space encourages learners to exercise agency and enact identities, to do learning from sociocultural and social semiotic perspectives that address the whole learner (Marie-Nöelle Lamy, 2007)
Lamy & Goodfellows Simuligne project (group competition) Imagine, design, and create a French city with the necessary attributes to host a residential course Create self-character for the city and describe community role Invent history and anthem of city Visit all cities and vote to choose recipient of city award Imagination
Task-based NetMeeting- mediated web creation project Levy & Kennedy (2004)
4 Australian students (L2 Italian) : GOAL (chosen by participants): produce web pages for the Italian Studies site of these students university Useful to students (in Australia) visiting Bologna and Perugia for a certain period of time With live material (audio & video) collected from informants in cities
conferencing software e.g., NetMeeting, with text/audio chat, graphics, & desktop sharing jointly browsing of the same on-screen material (e.g., websites) while talking jointly creating documents & alternating the control of the application
Task-based mobile phone interactions Kiernan & Aizawa (2004)
Narrative & invitation tasks done via: (a)F-t-f, (b) PC , (c) mobile phone Less language produced via mobile phone (using thumb pad), but Similar approach to task And most motivating: Most students wanted to experience the mobile phone condition
Importance of social context for technologies Only 4 of 54 Japanese college participants did not own a mobile phone with Almost all 50 owners used mobile phone daily and primarily for texting and ing Many Japanese college students know how to use the mobile thumb pad to text but not a PC keyboard In Japan & Europe, speaking on mobile phones is expensive, texting is cheap (the opposite is true in the US)
Part of the difficulty in drawing conclusions within CMC research is that results are often based on tasks or laboratory experiments that do not easily generalize to the real world (Luppicini, 2007, p. 174) Alternative, more real-world: Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments
The look to the future: Open social spaces, gaming, immersive environments
James GeeMarc Prensky
Sage Routledge Sage
In LLT too D. Zheng (Zheng et al. 2009) Douglas Coleman (2002) NfM… Negotiation for Action
from tasks to projects… to virtual worlds…?
From Always-On to Always-There (de Lange, 2009) How tractable for existing TBLT frameworks? here-and-now vs. there-and-then time-less & space-less Always On (Baron, 2008)
Gaming, simulations, & other immersive new technologies Motivation Authenticity Choice Feedback Community
tasks & technology Affinities (Dis)encounters What does the future hold?
René Magrittes Elective Affinities (1933) unfulfilled potentials… trapped within superficial barriers (blescarmona, 2009)
Will the TBLT and LLT research communities break away from superficial barriers?… Will future research fulfill the potential between tasks and technology?
References: Appel, C. & Gilabert, R. (2002). Motivation and task performance in a task-based web-based tandem project. ReCALL, 14(1), 16–31. Appel, C. & Gilabert, R. (2006). Finding common ground in LSP: a computer-mediated communication project. In Elisabet Arno Macia, Antonia Soler Cervera, & Carmen Rueda Ramos (Eds.), Information Technology in Languages for Specific Purposes: Issues and Prospects (pp ). New York: Springer. Belz, J. A., & Thorne, S. L. (Eds.). (2006). Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. Black, R.W. (2008). Adolescents and Online Fan Fiction. New York: Peter Lang. Blescarmona.(2009). How to appreciate the paintings of Rene Magritte. Retrieved August 22 from: Byrnes, H. (Ed.). (2006). Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky. London: Continuum. Chapelle, C. (2003). English language learning and technology: Lectures on applied linguistics in the age of information and communication technology. Amsterdam, John Benjamins. Coleman, D.W. (2002). Guest editorial: Simulation and computer-assisted language learning. Simulation & Gaming, 33(2), 179–180. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Collier Books. Doughty, C. J., & Long, M. H. (2003). Optimal psycholinguistic environments for distance foreign language learning. Language Learning and Technology. 7(3), Friesen, N., & Feenberg, A. (2007). 'Ed Tech in Reverse': Information technologies and the cognitive revolution. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 39,
Gánem Gutiérrez, G. A. (2008). Microgenesis, method and object: A study of collaborative activity in a Spanish as a foreign language classroom. Applied Linguistics, 29, González-Lloret, M. (2003). Designing task-based CALL to promote interaction: En busca de Esmeraldas. Language Learning &Technology, 7(1), Available at: González-Lloret, M. (2007). Implementing tasks through technology. In K. Van den Branden, K. Van Gorp, & M. Verhelst (Eds.), Tasks in action: Task-based language education from a classroom-based perspective (pp ). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Hampel, R. (2006). Rethinking task design for the digital age: A framework for language teaching and learning in a synchronous online environment. ReCALL, 18(1), 105–121. Hellermann, J. (2008). Social actions for classroom language learning. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Housen, A., & Kuiken, F. (Eds.). (2009). Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in second language acquisition: Theoretical and methodological perspectives. Special Issue of Applied Linguistics, 30(4). Keller-Lally, A. (2006). Effects of Group Size and Task on L2 Learners Output in Synchronous Computer- Mediated Communication. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Texas, Austin. Kiernan, P. J., & Aizawa, K. (2004). Cell phones in task based learning: Are cell phones useful language learning tools? ReCALL, 16, 71–84. Kolb, A., & Kold, D. A. (2005). Making Spaces for Learning: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Opening Keynote Address delivered at the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning Conference, November Kolb, A. Y., Kolb, D. A. (2009). Learning to play, playing to learn: A case study of a ludic learning space. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 22(6).
Kolb, A. Y., Kolb, D. A. (2009). The learning way: Meta-cognitive aspects of experiential learning. Simulation and Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 40, Lai, C., Fei, F., & Roots, R. (2008). The contingency of recasts and noticing. CALICO Journal, 26, Lai, C., & Zhao, Y. (2006). Noticing and text-based chat. Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 102–120. Lamy, M.-N. (2007). Interactive task design: Metachat and the whole language learner. In > del P. García Mayo (Ed.), Investigating tasks in formal language learning (pp ). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Leahy, C. (2004). Observations in the computer room: L2 output and learner behavior. ReCALL, 16, 24–144. Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2006). Corrective feedback in the chatroom: An experimental study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19, Loewen, S., & Reissner, S. (2009). A comparison of incidental focus on form in the second language classroom and chatroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22, 101–114. Luppicini, R. (2007). Review of computer mediated communication research for education. Instructional Science, 35, 141–185. Fernández-García, M., & Martínez-Arbelaiz, A. (2003). Learners' interactions and the negotiation of meaning: A comparison of oral and computer-assisted written conversations. ReCALL, 15, McMillan, S. J., & Morrison, M. (2006). Coming of age with the internet: A qualitative exploration of how the Internet has become an integral part of young peoples lives. New Media & Society, 8, Mohan, B. A. (1986). Language and content. Pearson Education. Mohan, B. A. (1992). Models of the role of the computer in second language development. In M. Pennington & V. Stevens (Eds.), Computers in applied linguistics (pp ). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Mohan, B. A., & and Luo, L. (2005). A Systemic Functional Linguistics Perspective on CALL. In J. L. Egbert & G. M. Petrie (Eds.), CALL Research Perspectives (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Müller-Hartmann, A. (2000). The role of tasks in promoting intercultural learning in electronic learning networks. Language Learning & Technology, 4(2), Nik Aloesnita Nik Mohd Alwi, & Adams, R. (2009). Task implementation features and language production in synchronous computer-mediated communication. Paper presented at the 3 rd International Task-Based Language Teaching Conference, September 15, Lancaster, UK. Norris, J. M. (2009). Task-based teaching and testing. In Michael H. Long & Catherine J. Doughty (Ed.), The handbook of language teaching (pp ). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Ortega, L. (1997). Processes and outcomes in networked classroom interaction: Defining the research agenda for L2 Computer-assisted Classroom Discussion. Language Learning & Technology, 1(1), Ortega, L. (2009). Interaction and attention to form in L2 text-based computer-mediated communication. In A. Mackey & C. Polio (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on interaction in SLA: Research in honor of Susan M. Gass (pp ). New York: Routledge. Ortega, L. & Zyzik, E. (2008). Online interactions and L2 learning: Some ethical challenges for L2 researchers. In S. Magnan (Ed.), Mediating Discourse Online (pp ). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pekarek-Doehler, S. & Ziegler, G. (2007). Doing language, doing science and the sequential organization of the immersion classroom. In Z. Hua, P. Seedhouse & V. Cook (Eds.), Language learning and teaching as social interaction (pp ). Basingstike, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Peterson, M. (2009). Learner interaction in synchronous CMC: A sociocultural perspective. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22, Ranalli, J. (2008). Learning English with The Sims: Exploiting authentic computer simulation games for L2 learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21, 441–455. Reinders, H. & C. White 2009 The theory and practice of technology in materials development and task design. In: Harwood, N. Materials in ELT: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (forthcoming).
Samuda, G., & Bygate, M. (2008). Tasks in second language learning. New York: Palgrave Macmilan. Sauro, S. (2009). Computer-mediated corrective feedback and the development of L2 grammar. Language Learning & Technology, 13(1), Selfe, C. L., & Hawisher, G. E. (Eds.). (2007). Gaming lives in the twenty-first century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1997). Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language Teaching Research, 1(3), Simpson, J. (2005). Conversational floors in synchronous text-based CMC discourse. Discourse Studies, 7, Skehan, P. (2003). Focus on form, tasks, and technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 16, 391– 411. Thorne, S.L., Black, R. W., & Sykes, J. (forthcoming). Second language use,socialization, and learning in Internet interest communities and online games. Modern Language Journal. Van den Branden, K. (Ed.). (2006). Task-based language education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Van den Branden, K., Bygate, M., & Norris, J. M. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Introducing the reader. In K. Van den Branden, M. Bygate, & J. M. Norris (Eds.), Task-based language teaching: A reader (pp. 1-13). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Warschauer, M. (2006). Laptops and literacy: Learning in the wireless classroom. New York: Teachers College Press. Zheng, D., Young, M., Brewer, R.A., & Wagner, M. M. (2009). Negotiation for action: English language learning in game-based virtual worlds. The Modern Language Journal, 93(4). Photo credits: Magrittes photo from: Goethes photo from: