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Ready to die for the goals Metaphor in Football – England vs. Germany Forschungskolloquium Sprachwissenschaft KU Eichstätt, 02. Juni 2010 Elmar Thalhammer,

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Presentation on theme: "Ready to die for the goals Metaphor in Football – England vs. Germany Forschungskolloquium Sprachwissenschaft KU Eichstätt, 02. Juni 2010 Elmar Thalhammer,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ready to die for the goals Metaphor in Football – England vs. Germany Forschungskolloquium Sprachwissenschaft KU Eichstätt, 02. Juni 2010 Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

2 Metaphor in Football Outline A brief history of football English football terminology in German Football and Linguistics Metaphors we live by Pilot study & research questions Corpus design Methodology Preliminary results Suggestions for further research # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

3 1. A brief history of football Postulated origins Shrovetide football Ashbourne, Derbyshire Kirkwall, Orkney Islands # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

4 1. A brief history of football Roman Empire: Harpastum # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

5 1. A brief history of Football Italy: Calcio fiorentino 16 th century originally elite sport played between San Giovanni Santa Maria Novella Santo Spirito Santa Croce # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

6 1. A brief history of football China: Tsu-Chu 3 rd century BC military training # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

7 1. A brief history of football Britain – the early years 12 th - 19 th century: increasing popularity and regulations 1846: first official rules (Rugby) failed attempts to unify the rules 1863: foundation of the FA # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

8 1. A brief history of football Britain – spreading the game 1857: first club: Sheffield FC 1871: first tournament: FA Cup # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

9 1. A brief history of football Britain – spreading the game football at schools 1906: Ministry of Education: football in the national curriculum # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

10 1. A brief history of football Germany: Fußball vs. Turnen 19 th century: Turnvater Jahn # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

11 1. A brief history of football Semantic change: Englische Krankheit # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. RicketsFootballHooliganism

12 1. A brief history of football Germany: From elite sport to mass phenomenon before WW I: pastime for the bourgeois after WW I: popular with lower classes before WWII: latent professionalism vs. Jewish commercialism after WW II: limited professionalism # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

13 2. German football terminology Germany: Konrad Koch, the father of football first German rules (1875) German football terminology (1903) Voßische Zeitung ( ): Capitain […] Goal […] Goalkeeper […] Half Time […] Passing […] Kickin […]. central role of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Sprachverein # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

14 2. German football terminology # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. centre-forward = Mittelstürmer corner = Ecke corner-kick = Eckball drawn = unentschieden forwards = Stürmer free-kick = Freistoß goal = Tor, (Mal) goal-line = Mallinie (Torlinie) goal-post = Torpfosten, Malstange half time = Halbzeit kick-off = Anstoß linesmen = Linienrichter off side = abseits out! = aus to pass = abgeben, zuspielen penalty-kick = Strafstoß referee = Schiedsrichter shoot = Schuß (Stoß) aufs Tor to shoot = schießen Kochs successful attempts

15 2. German football terminology # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. backs = Hinterspieler captain = Spielwart, Spielkaiser dribble = treiben drop-kick = Sprungstoß, Prellstoß full-back = Schlussspieler goal = (Tor,) Mal half-back = Halbspieler, Markmann to heel out = herausfersen to score a goal = ein Tor gewinnen, zählen Kochs unsuccessful attempts

16 3. Football and Linguistics The Literature: England vs. Germany # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

17 3. Football and Linguistics English Linguistics very few publications scattered across fields Beard: textbook Mackenzie: grammar Kuiper: discursive organisation Knobbe: text types / semantics # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

18 3. Football and Linguistics Beard (1998): The Language of Sport textbook general introduction overview of the many possible applications newspaper reports commentary (radio/TV) sports writing focus on football # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

19 3. Football and Linguistics Beard (1998): The Language of Sport Sporting contest, tactics and skills are also described in metaphorical terms and one of the most obvious fields of reference for sporting metaphor is that of war. Some of these metaphors are so deeply embedded in the way that we describe sport, that we fail to notice them consciously as metaphors. (Beard 1998, 34) # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

20 3. Football and Linguistics Beard (1998): The Language of Sport Metaphors in almost every chapter fails to grasp their all-pervasiveness unclear terminology: domains, semantic fields, references unclear view of metaphor: cognitive (Lakoffian) vs. classical (Aristotelian) # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

21 3. Football and Linguistics Mackenzie (2005): Does time pressure have an influence on a commentators linguistic output? corpus: 30 minutes of highlights of a Premier League match categorisation of syntactic complexity: holophrasitc < phrasal < clausal < sentential categorisation of time pressure: attacks > midfield play > dead balls > summary # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

22 3. Football and Linguistics Mackenzie (2005): Does time pressure have an influence on a commentators linguistic output? Results: more time pressure = more holophrastic structures Problems: choice of corpus assumptions about categories # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

23 3. Football and Linguistics Kuiper (1996): Smooth talkers sportscasters and auctioneers requirements of sportscasters fast sports slow sports # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

24 3. Linguistics and Football Kuiper (1996): Smooth talkers fast sports instantaneous linguistic realization of events similar to simultaneous translating danger of getting behind accumulation of too much information to be relayed slow sports no danger of falling behind challenge of filling in the gaps # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

25 3. Linguistics and Football Kuiper (1996): Smooth talkers fast sports play-by-play commentary more linguistic formulae slow sports colour commentary fewer linguistic formulae influence of the medium in question (radio vs. TV) # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

26 3. Football and Linguistics Knobbe (1997): Linguistic aspects of sports reporting in English tabloid newspapers corpus: 24 x The Sun, 8 x Daily Mail, 8 x Daily Mirror, 3 x Daily Express, 7 x Today (sports pages, 1995) macro structure of sports pages (header, body, etc.) frequent rhetoric devices (alliteration, inclusive we, etc.) # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

27 3. Football and Linguistics Knobbe (1997): Linguistic aspects of sports reporting in English tabloid newspapers metaphors as a tool for identifying national tendencies main functions of metaphor illustration dynamic effects (conscious) focus on certain analogies # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

28 3. Football and Linguistics # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

29 3. Football and Linguistics Knobbe (1997): Linguistic aspects of sports reporting in English tabloid newspapers Results: influence of many Lebensbereiche (similar to source domains) English tabloids more prone to militaristic metaphors Problems: choice of corpus view of metaphor # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

30 3. Football and Linguistics The Literature: England vs. Germany # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

31 3. Football and Linguistics German Linguistics centres of interest Germanness of football terminology influence of football language on other domains football as a source domain style/syntax of football reporting metaphors in football language # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

32 3. Football and Linguistics Germanness of football terminology Koch (1903): getting rid of English terms original English terms must be germanised competition with Jahns Turnen official promotion through the DFB distribution of new terms on signs (Wappenhans 1905) # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

33 3. Football and Linguistics Football as a source domain Settekorn (2001), Haubrich (1965), Bues (1939) football and/or sports as a source domain for: economics politics etc. sporting universals racing: start, finish, lap ball sports: goal, shoot # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

34 3. Football and Linguistics Football as a source domain Settekorn (2001), Haubrich (1965), Bues (1939) football language = Sondersprache (terminology + jargon) corpora: newspapers high frequency reflects its importance in society # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

35 3. Football and Linguistics Style of football reporting Dankert (1969), Feige (1963), Thormann (1982), Laven (1956) uniform, static vocabulary (and metaphors) criticism of creative word-formation impoverished, (syntactically) reduced form of language # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

36 3. Football and Linguistics Style of football reporting Dankert (1969), Feige (1963), Thormann (1982), Laven (1956) dramatisation of banalities mixed metaphors (implicit) criticism of professionalism global criticism of style # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

37 3. Football and Linguistics Metaphor and Football Rosenbaum (1969), Siefert (2002) rhetoric vs. cognitive view of metaphor WAR as the most (if not only) significant source domain particular importance between England and Germany often focus on tabloids # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

38 3. Football and Linguistics Metaphor and Football Vierkant (2008) corpus: radio commentaries (2006 World Cup: GER-CRC, GER- SWE, GER-ITA) analytical tool: MIP (Pragglejaz 2007) restriction to nouns and verbs unclear assignment of source domains # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

39 4. Metaphors we live by # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. += Achilles was a lion in battle.

40 4. Metaphors we live by Is Achilles really a lion? # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary a large powerful animal of the cat family that eats meat and is found in parts of Africa and southern Asia (dated) a brave or famous person

41 4. Metaphors we live by Mapping of qualities # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. AchillesLion brave strong courageous

42 4. Metaphors we live by George Lakoff & Mark Johnson (1980): Metaphors we live by… Your claims are indefensible. He attacked every weak point in my argument. His criticisms were right on target. I demolished his argument. Ive never won an argument with him. You disagree? Okay, shoot! If you use that strategy, hell wipe you out. He shot down all of my arguments. ARGUMENT IS WAR # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

43 4. Metaphors we live by Metaphors we live by: Mappings # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. argumentwar opinionfortress winning an argumentvictory in battle losing an argumentdefeat in battle ?attacking/defending

44 4. Metaphors we live by # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. Metaphors – just language? Youre wasting my time. This gadget will save you hours. I dont have the time to give you. How do you spend your time these days? That flat tire cost me an hour. Ive invested a lot of time in this. I dont have enough time to spare for that. You need to budget your time. waste save have, give spend cost invest have, spare budget

45 4. Metaphors we live by # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. waste save have, give spend cost invest have, spare budget

46 4. Metaphors we live by TIME IS MONEY # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. waste save have, give spend cost invest have, spare budget precious limited quantifiable

47 4. Metaphors we live by Metaphor in football: to shoot # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

48 4. Metaphors we live by Klaedkte, Egon C. (1987): Fußball ist schön # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

49 # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

50 5. Pilot study & research questions Pilot study # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. MA thesis, handed in October 2007 qualitative, corpus-based approach 164 metaphors and metonymies corpus: commentaries on 4 matches in both English and German selective: no transcription of the entire commentary source domains: WAR, DEATH, ORGANISATION, SPACE, TOOLS, NATION

51 5. Pilot study & research questions Research questions What is the central (and peripheral) vocabulary of English and German football language? Which conceptual metaphors are the most prominent and developed ones? Which source domains are the most productive ones in terms of metaphorical expressions? # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

52 5. Pilot study & research questions Methodological prerequisites extensive corpus tool for detecting symptomatic vocabulary procedure for identifying metaphors and source domains # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

53 6. Corpus design Munich Corpus of Football Commentaries (MCFC) English and German (MCFC-E, MCFC-G) transliterated radio commentaries no prosodic information no POS tagging # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

54 6. Corpus design Why radio commentaries? large text output and word/minute ratio immediacy spontaneity blind listener assumption of a symptomatic, yet not too specific choice of words # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

55 6. Corpus design # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. [...] Roma have the ball down the right side and theyre gonna win a corner. Thats very clever play by Mancini, whos switched flanks. And the corner taken quickly, United are sleeping, Mancini inside the penalty area, shoots, hits a defender and that fell very kindly for United. They almost counter-attack there. A terrific header forward by Chivu, Ronaldo was in a great position, van der Saar spots him, but doesnt get the delivery right, hits it straight through the middle between Solskjaer and Ronaldo straight through to Doni. Yeah, a couple of opportunities for Manchester there to attack and counter-attack very quickly, werent able to do so, misplaced kick by van der Saar. An example (34 seconds/113 words)

56 6. Corpus Design Munich Corpus of Football Commentaries (English) MCFC-E # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

57 6. Corpus design # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. MatchDayStationCommentators Everton – Liverpool04/02/2009BBC 5 LiveJohn Murray, Pat Nevin Portsmouth – Liverpool07/02/2009BBC 5 LiveDavid Oates, Nigel Adderley, Kit Symonds Roma – Arsenal London11/03/2009BBC 5 LiveAlistair Bruce Ball, Mark Bright Aston Villa – Tottenham15/03/2009BBC 5 LiveDarren Fletcher, Robbie Savage Chelsea – Manchester City15/03/2009BBC 5 LiveIan Brown, Ian Dennis, Alan Pardew Wolverhampton – Derby County09/12/2008BBC 5 LiveDave Woods, Darrius Vassell Tranmere – Huddersfield14/03/2009BBC LeedsPaul Ogden, Kieran Oriegan Hull City - Newcastle14/03/2009BBC 5 LiveJohn Murray, Danny Mills Barnsley – Birmingham09/04/2007BBC Sheffield Paul Walker, Derek Parker Roma – Manchester Utd.04/04/2007BBC 5 LiveGraham Taylor, Simon Brotherton, Alan Green PSV Eindhoven - Liverpool03/04/2007BBC 5 LiveMike Ingham, Jan Molby, Alan Green

58 6. Corpus Design Munich Corpus of Football Commentaries (German) MCFC-G # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

59 6. Corpus design # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. MatchDayStationCommentators Wehen – Mainz16/03/200990elf.deFabian von Wachsmann Germany – England19/11/2008WDR 2Jens-Jörg Rieck, Alexander Bleick Mönchengladbach – Hamburg07/03/200990elf.deMarko Röhling Hoffenheim – Wolfsburg15/11/200890elf.deMario Bast Leverkusen - Hoffenheim30/08/200890elf.deJochen Stutzky Olympiakos – Hertha BSC18/12/2008rbbNikolaus Hillmann, Guido Ringel Real Madrid – Bayern München29/02/2000B5 aktuellGünter Koch, Hans-Peter Pull Schalke – Bayern München09/11/200890elf.deTom Hilgers Schalke – Köln06/03/200990elf.deRolf Lange

60 6. Corpus design # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. MatchDateStationCommentators Sporting Lissabon – B. München25/02/2009B5 aktuellHans-Peter Pull, André Siems Stuttgart – Bielefeld15/11/200890elf.deRalf Bosse Bremen – Stuttgart15/03/200990elf.deThomas Reckermann Bremen – Panathinaikos04/11/2008Radio Bremen Henry Vogt, Heiko Neugebauer

61 6. Corpus design Differences in commentator set-up England: one commentator with an expert summariser (usually an ex- footballer) two main commentators with an expert summariser; the main commentators switch once during each half of the game in-between updates from other matches # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

62 6. Corpus design Differences in commentator set-up Germany no expert summarisers one commentator (90elf.de) two commentators alternating every couple of minutes # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

63 6. Corpus design Testing uniformity division into subcorpora = each speakers linguistic output concordance tool AntConc keyword analysis: subcorpora against MCFC # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

64 # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

65 6. Corpus design # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

66 6. Corpus design What does AntConc do and what do the numbers mean? statistical comparison of texts basis: reference corpus calculation of loglikelihood values p 6,64 p 10,83 The higher the LL-value, the more symptomatic a word. # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

67 6. Corpus design How idiosyncratic is Ralf Bosses vocabulary? # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A innen rausgeköpft Ecke rechts Abwurf rausgeschlagen 9.728Strafraum 9.659abgeblockt 9.657Spielunterbrechung 9.282vorne 8.991alleine 8.706endgültig 8.090gegenseitig 7.824passiert 7.640Flanke 6.992erleben 6.992Gefühl 6.992Klassenerhalt 6.899bekommen 6.777spielen innen rausgeköpft Ecke rechts p < 0,01p < 0,001

68 6. Corpus design Representativeness & caveats results indicate a fairly uniform vocabulary corpora are symptomatic for football language uncontrollable factors: result of a match course or development of a match intensity of the game # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

69 7. Methodology Corpus analysis keyword analysis MCFC-E, MCFC-G reference corpora: BNC (spoken part) Datenbank Gesprochenes Deutsch # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

70 7. Methodology Metaphor identification Pragglejaz Group (2007) establishing a simple analytical tool reliable across analysts Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. Peter Crisp Raymond Gibbs Alice Deignan Graham Low Gerard Steen Lynne Cameron Elena Semino Joe Grady Alan Cienki Zoltan Kövecses

71 7. Methodology Metaphor Identification Procedure (Pragglejaz 2007, 3) 1. Read the entire text–discourse to establish a general understanding of the meaning. 2. Determine the lexical units in the text–discourse 3. (a) For each lexical unit in the text, establish its meaning in context. Take into account what comes before and after the lexical unit. (b) For each lexical unit, determine if it has a more basic contemporary meaning in other contexts than the one in the given context. For our purposes, basic meanings tend to be more concrete [what they evoke is easier to imagine, see, hear, feel, smell, and taste]; related to bodily action; more precise (as opposed to vague); historically older; (c) decide whether the contextual meaning contrasts with the basic meaning but can be understood in comparison with it. 4. If yes, mark the lexical unit as metaphorical. # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

72 7. Methodology Basic meanings more concrete [what they evoke is easier to imagine, see, hear, feel, smell, and taste]; related to bodily action; more precise (as opposed to vague); historically older; Where do we find these? # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

73 7. Methodology Problematic issues with MIP Read the entire text? Historically older meanings? What about Mannschaft? # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

74 7. Methodology MIPVU – a development of MIP (Steen et al. 2010) reports practical experiences with MIP extends the analysis to different discourse domains more explicit guidelines lexical units basic meanings metaphor flags positive reliability tests # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

75 7. Methodology MIP LMU ? Methodological considerations Which dictionary? # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

76 7. Methodology MIP LMU ? Methodological considerations stronger inflectional morphology more word forms particle verbs AntConc operates on a word-by-word basis adjusting statistics # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

77 7. Methodology MIP LMU ? Methodological considerations analysis of compounds Nationalmannschaft vs. Fußballgott # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. not in the dictionary two lexical units: Fußball + Gott in the dictionary Mannschaft, die sich aus den besten Spielern eines Landes zusammensetzt no contrast: not metaphorical

78 7. Methodology MIP LMU ? Methodological considerations Fußball: Kampfspiel zw. zwei Mannschaften zu je 11 Spielern […] Gott: übermenschl., meist unsterbliches, mit Willen u. Macht ausgestattetes, kult. verehrtes Wesen, Gegenstand des relig. Glaubens # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. no contrast between contextual and basic meaning contrast between contextual and basic meaning Fußballgott is metaphorical

79 7. Methodology Combining AntConc & MIP(VU) AntConc: keyword analysis corpus-based, football vocabulary for E & G central vs. peripheral # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

80 7. Methodology Combining AntConc & MIP(VU) # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. MIP(VU) WAR TOOLS ORGANISATION THEATRE ANIMALS

81 7. Methodology Combining AntConc & MIP(VU) How do English and German conceptualise football? # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. WAR TOOLS ORGANISATION THEATRE ANIMALS WAR TOOLS ORGANISATION THEATRE ANIMALS NATION WORK DEATH RELIGION

82 7. Methodology Assigning source domains notorious problem in metaphor research much individual variation broad vs. narrow categories # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

83 7. Methodology Assigning source domains Possible solutions: # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

84 7. Methodology Assigning source domains threefold classification: Class: abstract relations, intellect Division: formation of ideas, individual volition Head: attack to attack, assault, to besiege # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

85 7. Methodology Assigning source domains twofold classification: broad: time, society, culture narrow: attack angreifen, belagern, entern # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

86 8. Preliminary results Keyword analysis: German # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

87 8. Preliminary results Keyword analysis: German # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

88 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: Seite DUDEN: eine von mehreren ebenen Flächen, die einen Körper, Gegenstand begrenzen Fläche eines Raumes, Gegenstandes, Körpers rechter oder linker flächiger Teil eines Gegenstandes, Körpers WAHRIG: Grenzfläche eines Körpers Grenzlinie eines Körpers rechte oder linke […] Fläche # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

89 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: Seite Contextual meaning: # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. no significant difference between literal/basic and contextual meaning no metaphor

90 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: Tor DUDEN: Öffnung in einer Mauer, Zaun, o.Ä., die durch ein Tor verschlossen wird, breiter Eingang, breite Einfahrt Vorrichtung aus Holz, Metall, o.Ä., die ein Tor verschließt WAHRIG: große Öffnung in einer Mauer, Begrenzung, die mit einer großen Tür verschlossen werden kann, Einfahrt, breiter Eingang große Tür, mit der eine Öffnung in einer Begrenzung, Mauer verschlossen werden kann # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

91 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: Tor Contextual meaning: # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. difference between literal/basic and contextual meaning metaphor

92 8. Preliminary results Keyword analysis: English # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

93 8. Preliminary results Keyword analysis: English # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

94 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: side Macmillan: a particular area of something such as a building, street, or town an outside surface of an object or shape that is not its front, back, bottom, or top # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

95 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: side Meaning in context # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

96 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: side # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. metonymy Barnsley side: indicating possession

97 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: territory Macmillan: an area of land controlled by a particular country, leader, or army an area of land that is officially part of a country but does not have the status of a state or a province # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

98 8. Preliminary results Metaphor identification: territory # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A. metaphor

99 Summing up conceptual metaphor corpus: radio commentaries distillation of essential English and German football vocabulary applying MIP to German charting the conceptual landscape of English and German football language # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

100 9. Suggestions for further research Approaches worth looking at… diachronic constructions/collostructions football and gender non-footballing cultures # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.

101 The Final Whistle Thank you for your attention. Presentation and bibliography under: # Elmar Thalhammer, M.A.


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