Presentation on theme: "Metaphorical Uses of Language in Native and Non-native Student Writing: A corpus-based study By: Claudia Marcela Chapetón Castro M.A. in Applied Linguistics."— Presentation transcript:
Metaphorical Uses of Language in Native and Non-native Student Writing: A corpus-based study By: Claudia Marcela Chapetón Castro M.A. in Applied Linguistics to TEFL. (Bogotá, Colombia) PhD Student at The University of Barcelona
Origin of the Proposal Introduction to Corpus Linguistics as a student of the PhD Program in Applied Linguistics at UB Advanced Seminar on New Trends in Lexicology at the University of Barcelona My interest in Pragmatic Uses of Language and Metaphorical Competence
Main Objectives Identify and investigate native and non-native students’ use of metaphorical language in their written production. (Their use of conceptual metaphors) Conduct research on metaphorical competence and corpus linguistics by the analysis of learner and native corpora.
Specific Objectives To select an appropriate theoretical and analytic framework for metaphor identification. To gain understanding of the role and functions of metaphor in a specific context of language in use: argumentative student writing. To find out categories of use/meaning that differentiate learner from native use of metaphorical language. To assess the usefulness of linguistic software tools for this type of study.
Data Computer Learner Corpus: International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) The Spanish subcorpus Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays (LOCNESS) American university students' essays
Data Native and Non-native Student Corpora Texts Type: Argumentative Essays Similar Range of Topics EFL Learners with an advanced proficiency level
Research Questions To what extent are conceptual metaphors used by native and non-native students? What is the frequency, density and distribution of conceptual metaphors in the two corpus samples? Which purposes do conceptual metaphors fulfill in the argumentative writing of native and non-native students? Are there qualitative or quantitative differences in the way they employ metaphor?
Why Metaphor? Metaphor is a property of concepts, and not of words. The function of metaphor goes beyond artistic or esthetic purposes: It helps to better understand certain abstract concepts It is used effortlessly in everyday life by ordinary people. It is not just a “pleasing linguistic ornament” but a process of human thought and reasoning. Lakoff and Johnson (1980)
Why metaphorical competence? Metaphor is an intrinsic feature of discourse (Kövecses, 2002). The programming of discourse in metaphorical ways is a basic feature of native-speaker competence. (Danesi, 1993) Metaphorical language can be studied in contexts of use connecting the cognitive with the socio-cultural. (Cameron, 1999) Metaphoric competence has a central role to play in all areas of communicative competence. (Littlemore and Low, 2006)
Conceptual Metaphor Metaphor is defined as understanding and experiencing one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. (A is B: LOVE IS A JOURNEY ) Metaphorical linguistic expressions make manifest particular conceptual metaphors: “Look how far we’ve come” The target domain is the one we try to understand through the use of the source domain. Lakoff and Johnson (1980)
Kinds of Metaphor Conceptual Metaphors are classified according to the cognitive functions they perform. Lakoff and Johnson (1980)
MR: A Shift in Focus A renewed focus on the language of metaphors: The development of discourse and corpus approaches. (Cameron; Deignan; Semino; Steen) Cognitive metaphor theory applied to empirical discourse data. Gerard Steen (1999) CR is crucial To discriminate between different types of metaphor. To differentiate between literary and non-literary metaphor. To identify their properties and functions.
Metaphor and Language Use “Metaphor should be a matter of underlying propositions, not linguistic expressions” The construction of inferences between clauses. Implicit and Explicit Metaphors. Gerard Steen (1999)
Summary In this presentation I have outlined my initial plans to develop my PhD research project. I have given you an idea about the seminal work of Lakoff and mentioned some of the new approaches to metaphor research. I have just started walking through the fascinating path of research into metaphor and corpus linguistics.