Presentation on theme: "2011 SARs Consultation: Analysing ethnicity and identity variables David Owen, University of Warwick."— Presentation transcript:
2011 SARs Consultation: Analysing ethnicity and identity variables David Owen, University of Warwick
Topics covered in presentation The identity and ethnicity variables classifications and UK-wide consistency Comments on the variables What can be done with 2011 SARs that was not previously possible Issues in using these variables – what might not be possible Is comparison with 1991 and 2001 possible?
Variables considered here Ethnicity Identity Citizenship
The ethnicity question in each nation
Ethnicity variables In England and Wales the ETHNICITY variable will contain the full detail (18 categories) for the Census question in all 6 proposed outputs In Scotland, this variable will contain 21 categories in all outputs except the End User LA file (9 categories) In Northern Ireland, this variable will contain 14 categories in all outputs except the End User LA file (9 categories)
Comparability between countries The ethnic group and identity questions have important inconsistencies between UK countries. Ethnic group question quite different in Northern Ireland from other countries. The White-Other and Asian-Other categories not used in Northern Ireland. In Scotland, Polish is a category of white and the Mixed category is treated differently to England and Wales. Need to recode national questions into simpler variables to create consistent ethnic categories for cross-UK analysis. Some analysis not possible at UK scale – e.g. identifying long-term residents by ethnic group – because length of stay not asked in Scotland. Citizenship not collected in Scotland National identity categories slightly different by country.
Comments on questions A common request in the comments on the Census questions was increased detail in classifications Identification of a greater diversity of origins. Though this can be done by recoding detailed question in CAMS, it would be desirable to precode some categories so they can be accessible in authorised user and EUL files. Intention of length of stay question not asked in Scotland. Population base therefore inconsistent between Scotland and rest of UK.
Combinations Ethnicity and identity are combined in 7 variables: ETHNATID 1 to 4, ETHNATIDE1, ETHNATIDW1, ETHNATID(S) While useful, these also are limiting in terms of disaggregations of nationality and involve simplification of ethnicity. Some of the comments noted that combining these variables is problematical. Could identify small populations? Some comments have also requested small disaggregations of country groups in these and similar variables – e.g. breakdowns of Middle East. These are desirable but would yield small counts.
Household ethnicity variables MEIGHUK11 – multiple ethnicity, 5 categories in each file MULTETH – multiple ethnicity, 5 categories in each file PRTETHEW – partner ethnic group, 18 categories (EW) in each file ETHHUK11 – Household reference person ethnic group,18 categories in all files (E&W?) Would be useful to have variable in all countries Combining ETHHUK11 and PRTETHEW would produced small counts – presumably variable will be less detailed in EUL files.
Census national identity questions
Ethnicity and identity variables combined ETHNATID(1) Ethnic national identity ETHNATID(1) ETHNATID(S) Ethnic national identity (Scotland only) ETHNATID(S) ETHNATID2 Ethnic national identity ETHNATID2 ETHNATID3 Ethnic national identity (Labels to be decided later) ETHNATID3 ETHNATID4 Ethnic national identity (Labels to be decided later) ETHNATID4 ETHNATIDE1 English ethnic identity (Labels to be decided later) ETHNATIDE1 ETHNATIDW1 Welsh ethnic identity(Labels to be decided later) ETHNATIDW1 NATID1 English identity NATID1 NATID2 Welsh identity NATID2 NATID3 Scottish identity NATID3 NATID4 Northern Irish identity NATID4 NATID5 British NATID5 NATID6 Others identity NATID6 NATID7 Cornish identity NATID7 NATID8 Irish identity NATID8
Comments on identity Questions very similar in each country, except for the order of UK countries. In Northern Ireland Irish is also asked. Identification of other identities possible from recoding of write-in answers. Since all options can be ticked, it is possible to identify multiple national identities (e.g. within UK; UK and other country). However, it is not possible to identify the hierarchy within the answers provided. There are 8 variables derived from this question (NATID1 to NATID8). Some will be geographically limited and involve small numbers (e.g. Cornish identity). The ETHNATID variables involve judgement of what is of interest could be created by users. Are they necessary or does restriction on variable detail in SARs and EUL necessitate this?
The Citizenship question England & Wales 22 What passports do you hold? United Kingdom Irish Other, write in None No citizenship question in Scotland Northern Ireland Question is the same as for England & Wales except for the use of the word Ireland
Coding of citizenship The proposed coding scheme for the CITIZENSHIP variable is: 1 United Kingdom 2 United Kingdom and Irish 3 United Kingdom and Other 4 Irish 5 Irish and other 6 Other 7 none This level of detail is proposed for all five SAR files.
Comments on Citizenship variable Citizenship is an important variable for monitoring the impact of migration because with freedom of movement in an expanded EU, an increasing number of migrants will maintain their citizenship. Having more than one passport might be a useful indicator of people with a transnational lifestyle. Conversely, the none category may be a useful indicator of social exclusion for adults. Unfortunately UK-wide analysis will not be possible, because this question was not included in the Census forms for Scotland. The Other category could be recoded in a similar way to the Nationality classification in order to permit a wider range of sole and dual citizenship categories to be identified – e.g. EU15, A8/A2, New/Old Commonwealth, rest of world. Clearly, this more detailed classification would need to be simplified for the EU regional and local files in order to protect confidentiality. There is also a question whether the numbers in the Irish and other category in CITIZENSHIP may also be too small in the regional and local End User Files and a single multiple passports category might be necessary.
New analyses possible using SARs The Census added questions on national identity, citizenship (passports) and intended duration of migration. These variables provide the potential to examine questions of integration and a range of socio-economic and cultural or ethnic variables. Length of stay and citizenship would enable analysis of highly mobile migrants and their characteristics; e.g. EU migrants circulating between EU countries. National identity and citizenship might also be an indicator of possible return migration for some migrant groups. Combining with country of birth might enable migration of refugees gaining citizenship elsewhere in EU to be identified. Ideally, a detailed breakdown of countries of citizenship/identity would be required, limiting sophisticated analysis to the CAMS. Care would still be required with small populations. Gypsy/Roma/Traveller is a new category but is a small population and low coverage may mean that only aggregate analysis is possible.
Comparability with previous SARs The ethnic group question changed in each Census, but the largest ethnic categories remain broadly the same. The white category is more disaggregated over time. The Irish category not asked in the same way in The treatment of Other and Mixed categories varies between Censuses and these will be least comparable. Change in population base between 2001 and 2011 also complicates comparison over time, with difference between England & Wales and Scotland.
Concluding wish list More flexibility to get better detail on some dimensions by losing some questions UK-wide comparability Ability to construct more geographically detailed country variables Link to small-area characteristics