Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Critical Reading for Self-Critical Writing: introduction to a structured approach for reviewing literature Mike Wallace and Alison Wray.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Critical Reading for Self-Critical Writing: introduction to a structured approach for reviewing literature Mike Wallace and Alison Wray."— Presentation transcript:

1 Critical Reading for Self-Critical Writing: introduction to a structured approach for reviewing literature Mike Wallace and Alison Wray

2 Aims 1.to introduce a structured approach for reviewing literature based on analysing texts at two levels of depth 2.to highlight the parallel between constructively critical reading of others writing in the literature and self-critical writing as creators of academic literature for other critical readers 3.to support participants in developing their ability to engage critically with the literature

3 Programme 1.linking constructively critical reading with self-critical academic writing 2.engaging critically with frontline texts – a critical synopsis 3.structuring an in-depth critical analysis of a text 4.trying out the critical analysis of a text reporting research 5.building up a comparative critical review and developing an argument

4 The Logic of Enquiry (book pvii-viii) Two-way critical academic discourse: as a reader, evaluating others attempts to communicate and convince through developing their argument as a researcher and writer, developing ones own argument that will communicate with and convince the projected audience

5 Components of an Argument the conclusion rests on claims to knowledge, assertions that something is, or should be, true claims to knowledge are backed by evidence, the warrant for the conclusion evidence varies, e.g. from literature / own work: -research findings -professional experience -a definition of a theoretical idea

6 Being Constructively Critical adopting an attitude of scepticism towards knowledge and its production scrutinising arguments to see how far claims are warranted, and so convincing being open-minded, willing to be convinced if scrutiny removes doubts being constructive by attempting to achieve a worthwhile goal in developing ones own argument

7 Complete the exercise on page 2 of the handout (book p 12-13)

8 Three-Part Book Structure (p viii-x) 1.Getting started on critical reading and self-critical writing, summary analysis of texts (Ch 1-5) 2.Developing a mental map for navigating the literature, analysing texts in depth, writing critical reviews of them (Ch 6-10) 3.Structuring critical reviews of the literature, incorporating them into a dissertation, taking forward critical reading and self-critical writing skills in an academic career (Ch 11-14)

9 Critical Reading (Ch 3): Five Critical Synopsis Questions (p31-4) AWhy am I reading this? BWhat are the authors trying to do in writing this? CWhat are the authors saying thats relevant to what I want to find out? DHow convincing is what the authors are saying? EIn conclusion, what use can I make of this?

10 Complete the Critical Synopsis form on page 3 of the handout for the research report article or chapter you brought (book p35)

11 Self-Critical Writing (Ch 4): Structure for a Critical Summary (p44) Title Introducing the text, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Question: A Why am I reading this? Reporting the content, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Questions: B What are the authors trying to do in writing this? and C What are the authors saying thats relevant to what I want to find out? Evaluating the content, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Question: D How convincing is what the authors are saying? Drawing your conclusion, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Question: E In conclusion, what use can I make of this? warrant

12 Comparative Critical Summary (Ch 5): Structure (p49) Title Introducing the text, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Question A for all texts Reporting the content, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Questions B and C for all texts Evaluating the content, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Question D for all texts Drawing your conclusion, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Question E for all texts warrant

13 Mental Map for Navigating the Literature (Ch 6-7) One set of tools for thinking Twodimensions of variation amongst knowledge claims Threekinds of knowledge Fourtypes of literature Fiveintellectual projects

14 One set of Tools for Thinking: the Key to the Mental Map Concepts Perspectives Metaphors Theories Models Assumptions Ideologies

15 Two Dimensions of Variation of Claims Degree of certainty Low High Degree of generalization HighLow Low vulnerability - weak claim, minimal generalization Moderate vulnerability - strong claim, minimal generalization Moderate vulnerability - weak claim, extensive generalization High vulnerability - strong claim, extensive generalization

16 Three Kinds of Knowledge (+ Key) Tools for thinking concepts perspectives metaphors theories models assumptions ideologies Practice knowledge developed through taking action Research knowledge developed through systematic investigation Theoretical knowledge developed through systematic reflection

17 Four Types of Literature 1.research - systematic enquiries into policy and practice by professional researchers or practitioners, results are made public 2.practice - by informed professionals who evaluate others practice and by practitioners who evaluate their practice 3.policy - policy-makers desired changes in practice (negative evaluation of present) 4.theoretical - ideas and models for interpreting and explaining practice

18 Five Intellectual Projects ProjectRationaleValue stanceTypical question Under- standIng Understand through theory and research DisinterestedWhat happens and why? Critical evaluation Evaluate through theory and research CriticalWhat is wrong with what happens? ActionInform policy-makers through research and evaluation Positive towards policy and improving practice How effective are actions to improve practice? Instrum- entalism Improve practice through training and consultancy Positive towards policy and improving practice How may this programme improve practice? Reflexive action Improve own practice through evaluation and action Critical of practice, positive about improving How effective is my practice? How may I improve?

19 AWhy am I reading this? 1.What review question am I asking of this literature? BWhat are the authors trying to do in writing this? 2.What type of literature is this? 3.What kind of intellectual project is being undertaken? CWhat are the authors saying thats relevant to what I want to find out? 4.What is being claimed that is relevant to answering my review question? Critical Synopsis and Critical Analysis Questions (Ch 8) (p92)

20 DHow convincing is what the authors are saying? 5.How far is there backing for claims? 6.How adequate is any conceptual or theoretical orientation to back claims? 7.How far does any value stance adopted affect claims? 8.How far are claims supported or challenged by others' work? 9.How far are claims consistent with my experience? EIn conclusion, what use can I make of this? 10.What is my overall evaluation of this literature in the light of my review question?

21 Complete the Critical Analysis form for the research report article or chapter you brought (book Appendix 3)

22 Useful Sources of Assistance Mental map Ch 6-7 Types of literature and potential limitations Table 7.1 (p81-2) Guidance on using Critical Analysis form (p93-99)

23 Critical Review Structure (p117-8) Title - keywords Introduction – state purpose (review questions – critical analysis Q1) Summary of research design – purposes (Q2, 3), relevance to review questions (Q1), procedure Main findings and claims – up to 5 claims relating to review question (Q4), range of contexts to which applied Evaluation of claims – for context from which derived, applicability to other contexts (Q5-9) Conclusion – overall evaluation, summary answer to review question (Q10) References warrant

24 Defining a Critical Literature Review (p130) a reviewers constructively critical account developing an argument designed to convince a particular audience about what published (and possibly also unpublished) theory, research, practice or policy texts indicate is and is not known about one or more questions that the reviewer has framed

25 Literature Review Structure Based on Critical Analyses and Critical Synopses (p134-5) Introduction – purpose, justification, scope, limitations, signposting Sections building up the warrant of your argument Based on answers to Critical Analysis Questions for central texts Based on answers to Critical Synopsis Questions for more peripheral texts Introduction to texts being reviewed Authors main claims relevant to review question Evaluation of authors main claims 2, BCDBCD Final section setting out conclusion of argument Summary of evaluation answering review question 10E References

26 Extended Structure for Multiple Review Questions (p139-40) Introduction – purpose, justification, scope, limitations, signposting Section addressing the first review question Subsections building up the warrant of your argument for this section Based on answers to Critical Analysis Questions for central texts Based on answers to Critical Synopsis Questions for more peripheral texts Introduction to texts being reviewed Authors main claims relevant to first review question Evaluation of authors main claims 2, BCDBCD Final subsection setting out conclusion of argument Summary of evaluation answering first review question 10E

27 Conclusion for whole literature review References Section addressing secondreview question Subsections leading to conclusion of argument answering second review question Based on answers to Critical Analysis Questions for central texts Based on answers to Critical Synopsis Questions for more peripheral texts Section addressing thirdreview question Subsections leading to conclusion of argument answering third review question Based on answers to Critical Analysis Questions for central texts Based on answers to Critical Synopsis Questions for more peripheral texts

28 Electronic Resources Three blank forms (which can be used as masters) can be downloaded from the website: Critical Synopsis form Critical Analysis form Logic Checksheet form (for a dissertation or thesis)

29 Good luck!


Download ppt "Critical Reading for Self-Critical Writing: introduction to a structured approach for reviewing literature Mike Wallace and Alison Wray."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google