Presentation on theme: "Self-Critical Writing:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Self-Critical Writing: Critical Reading forSelf-Critical Writing:introduction to a structured approach for reviewing literatureMike Wallace and Alison Wray
2 Aimsto introduce a structured approach for reviewing literature based on analysing texts at two levels of depthto highlight the parallel between constructively critical reading of others’ writing in the literature and self-critical writing as creators of academic literature for other critical readersto support participants in developing their ability to engage critically with the literature
3 Programmelinking constructively critical reading with self-critical academic writingengaging critically with ‘frontline’ texts – a critical synopsisstructuring an in-depth critical analysis of a texttrying out the critical analysis of a text reporting researchbuilding up a comparative critical review and developing an argument
4 The Logic of Enquiry (book pvii-viii) Two-way critical academic discourse:as a reader, evaluating others’ attempts to communicate and convince through developing their argumentas a researcher and writer, developing one’s own argument that will communicate with and convince the projected audience
5 Components of an Argument the conclusion rests on claims to knowledge, assertions that something is, or should be, trueclaims to knowledge are backed by evidence, the warrant for the conclusionevidence varies, e.g. from literature / own work: - research findings - professional experience - a definition of a theoretical idea
6 Being Constructively Critical adopting an attitude of scepticism towards knowledge and its productionscrutinising arguments to see how far claims are warranted, and so convincingbeing open-minded, willing to be convinced if scrutiny removes doubtsbeing constructive by attempting to achieve a worthwhile goal in developing one’s own argument
7 Complete the exercise on page 2 of the handout (book p 12-13)
8 Three-Part Book Structure (p viii-x) Getting started on critical reading and self-critical writing, summary analysis of texts (Ch 1-5)Developing a mental map for navigating the literature, analysing texts in depth, writing critical reviews of them (Ch 6-10)Structuring critical reviews of the literature, incorporating them into a dissertation, taking forward critical reading and self-critical writing skills in an academic career (Ch 11-14)
9 Critical Reading (Ch 3): Five Critical Synopsis Questions (p31-4) A Why am I reading this?B What are the authors trying to do in writing this?C What are the authors saying that’s relevant to what I want to find out?D How convincing is what the authors are saying?E In conclusion, what use can I make of this?
10 Complete the Critical Synopsis form on page 3 of the handout for the research report article or chapter you brought (book p35)
11 Self-Critical Writing (Ch 4): Structure for a Critical Summary (p44) TitleIntroducing the text, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Question:A Why am I reading this?Reporting the content, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Questions:B What are the authors trying to do in writing this? andC What are the authors saying that’s relevant to what I want to find out?Evaluating the content, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Question:D How convincing is what the authors are saying?Drawing your conclusion, informed by answer to Critical Synopsis Question:E In conclusion, what use can I make of this?warrant
12 Comparative Critical Summary (Ch 5): Structure (p49) TitleIntroducing the text, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Question A for all textsReporting the content, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Questions B and C for all textsEvaluating the content, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Question D for all textsDrawing your conclusion, informed by answers to Critical Synopsis Question E for all textswarrant
13 Mental Map for Navigating the Literature (Ch 6-7) One set of tools for thinkingTwo dimensions of variation amongst knowledge claimsThree kinds of knowledgeFour types of literatureFive intellectual projects
14 One set of Tools for Thinking: the Key to the Mental Map ConceptsPerspectivesMetaphorsTheoriesModelsAssumptionsIdeologies
15 Two Dimensions of Variation of Claims Degree of certaintyLow HighLow vulnerability -weak claim,minimal generalizationModerate vulnerability -strong claim,Moderate vulnerability -weak claim, extensive generalizationHigh vulnerability -strong claim, extensive generalizationHigh LowDegree of generalization
16 Three Kinds of Knowledge (+ Key) Theoretical knowledgedeveloped through systematic reflectionTools for thinkingconceptsperspectivesmetaphorstheoriesmodelsassumptionsideologiesResearch knowledgedeveloped through systematic investigationPractice knowledgedeveloped through taking action
17 Four Types of Literature research - systematic enquiries into policy and practice by professional researchers or practitioners, results are made publicpractice - by informed professionals who evaluate others’ practice and by practitioners who evaluate their practicepolicy - policy-makers’ desired changes in practice (negative evaluation of present)theoretical - ideas and models for interpreting and explaining practice
18 Five Intellectual Projects RationaleValue stanceTypical questionUnder-standIngUnderstand through theory and researchDisinterestedWhat happens and why?Critical evaluationEvaluate through theory and researchCriticalWhat is wrong with what happens?ActionInform policy-makers through research and evaluationPositive towards policy and improving practiceHow effective are actions to improve practice?Instrum-entalismImprove practice through training and consultancyHow may this programme improve practice?Reflexive actionImprove own practice through evaluation and actionCritical of practice, positive about improvingHow effective is my practice? How may I improve?
19 Critical Synopsis and Critical Analysis Questions (Ch 8) (p92) A Why am I reading this? 1. What review question am I asking of this literature? B What are the authors trying to do in writing this? 2. What type of literature is this? 3. What kind of intellectual project is being undertaken? C What are the authors saying that’s relevant to what I want to find out? 4. What is being claimed that is relevant to answering my review question?
20 D. How convincing is what the authors are. saying. 5 D How convincing is what the authors are saying? 5. How far is there backing for claims? 6. How adequate is any conceptual or theoretical orientation to back claims? 7. How far does any value stance adopted affect claims? 8. How far are claims supported or challenged by others' work? 9. How far are claims consistent with my experience? E In conclusion, what use can I make of this? 10. What is my overall evaluation of this literature in the light of my review question?
21 Complete the Critical Analysis form for the research report article or chapter you brought (book Appendix 3)
22 Useful Sources of Assistance Mental map Ch 6-7Types of literature and potential limitations Table 7.1 (p81-2)Guidance on using Critical Analysis form (p93-99)
23 Critical Review Structure (p117-8) Title - keywordsIntroduction – state purpose (review questions – critical analysis Q1)Summary of research design – purposes (Q2, 3),relevance to review questions (Q1), procedureMain findings and claims – up to 5 claims relating to review question (Q4), range of contexts to which appliedEvaluation of claims – for context from which derived, applicability to other contexts (Q5-9)Conclusion – overall evaluation, summary answer to review question (Q10)Referenceswarrant
24 Defining a Critical Literature Review (p130) a reviewer’s constructively critical accountdeveloping an argument designed to convince a particular audienceabout what published (and possibly also unpublished)theory, research, practice or policy texts indicate is and is not knownabout one or more questions that the reviewer has framed
25 Literature Review Structure Based on Critical Analyses and Critical Synopses (p134-5) Introduction – purpose, justification, scope, limitations, signpostingSections building up the warrant of your argumentBased on answers to Critical Analysis Questions for central textsBased on answers to Critical Synopsis Questions for more peripheral textsIntroduction to texts being reviewedAuthors’ main claims relevant to review questionEvaluation of authors’ main claims2, 345-9BCDFinal section setting out conclusion of argumentSummary of evaluation answering review question10EReferences
26 Extended Structure for Multiple Review Questions (p139-40) Introduction – purpose, justification, scope, limitations, signpostingSection addressing the first review questionSubsections building up the warrant of your argument for this sectionBased on answers to Critical Analysis Questions for central textsBased on answers to Critical Synopsis Questions for more peripheral textsIntroduction to texts being reviewedAuthors’ main claims relevant to first review questionEvaluation of authors’ main claims2, 345-9BCDFinal subsection setting out conclusion of argumentSummary of evaluation answering first review question10E
27 Section addressing second review questionSubsections leading to conclusion of argument answering second review questionBased on answers to Critical Analysis Questions for central textsBased on answers to Critical Synopsis Questions for more peripheral textsSection addressing thirdSubsections leading to conclusion of argument answering third review questionConclusion for whole literature reviewReferences
28 Electronic ResourcesThree blank forms (which can be used as masters) can be downloaded from the website:Critical Synopsis formCritical Analysis formLogic Checksheet form (for a dissertation or thesis)