Presentation on theme: "Motivating Your Workforce to Behave Safely"— Presentation transcript:
1Motivating Your Workforce to Behave Safely A training pack for Dutyholders, Managers and SupervisorsYou can use this training pack as part of a toolbox talk as well as a stand alone training session. If you are not able to run the training in one go, you can run the sessions over three toolbox talks, but you must make sure that there is no more than two weeks between each session. To link each session the group will be asked to go away and think about an aspect of the training as they will be asked to discuss it next time.Objectives:To help the workers focus on behaving safely.To identify the key risk taking behaviours that lead to the top ten fatalities and to show the group that the causes of fatalities as well as accidents and incidents are often minor.How the slides are organised:Each slide is accompanied with a set of notes and actions that will allow you to set up the exercises, focus the discussion and identify the outcomes you need to achieve by the end of the pack. They are organised under two headings:1. Facilitator Notes – These notes tell you about the structure of the session/exercises; the steps you need to take to achieve the best outcomes including suggestions for the types of questions you may need to ask the group as well as the messages that you need to convey to the group.2. Facilitator Actions – These are the instructions you give to the group.Before the delegates arrive:You should remind yourself of the information sheets in Step 6 of this toolkit.You may find it helpful to also read the information sheets on communication in Step 4 of this toolkit.If you are using the Jennifer Deeney video clip in Step 5 of this toolkit, check that you have your equipment set up.You need to have prepared a flipchart or handout of the identified immediate and underlying behaviours for the top ten causes of fatalities (see the final slide).What you will need:Flipchart/white boardMarker PensComputer/overhead projector (to play the video clip)If you have more than 8 people in your group, have you got enough space to split them up into discussion groups?Facilitator Action:IntroductionsDomestics – (length of session/what to do in the event of a fire alarm, if appropriate).Example Flipchart:
2Session 1ObjectivesTo understand the key risk taking behaviours that lead to the top ten fatalities in construction.To show you that the causes of fatalities are often minor.To remind you that if you do not die you may end up with a health condition or disability that may stop you from working.Facilitator Notes:Our objectives for today’s workshop are:To encourage workers to identify the key risk taking behaviours that lead to the top ten fatalities in Construction.To show workers that the causes of fatalities are often minor.To remind workers that if they do not die they may end up with a health condition or disability that may stop them from working.Facilitator Actions:“There is a list of the most common types of fatalities on construction sites and I’m going to see if I can get you to guess what the key risk taking behaviours are that cause them. See if there are any surprises! As it says on the slide we might think it is something major that causes fatalities, but a bit like when you throw a stone in a pond, sometimes there is a knock on effect and its often the small things, the stuff we don’t really pay much attention to, which we ought to, that is most likely to lead to death. Also, remember that if an accident or incident doesn’t kill you it may leave you with a health condition or disability that may stop you from working.There’s a video clip I’ll show you later which will give you some idea how the small things are often fatal. The guy had an earlier close shave but he wasn’t so lucky second time around.”
3Exercise 1 What do you think are the main causes of fatalities on construction sites? Facilitator Notes:In this session you are going to get your group to think about their typical working day and get them to brainstorm what they think are the main causes of fatalities on construction sites. Check the numbers in your group - if you have more than 8 people split them into two and give them five minutes to discuss.FACILITATOR ACTION:Ask workers to think about their typical working day and ask them to brainstorm what they think the main causes of fatalities are on construction sites. You may want to give them an example – e.g. working at heights.Take ideas from the group and put them on a board/flipchart. Use these as a starting point to discuss with them the more specific tasks that they might be doing where a fatality could occur, so for example, for working at heights you could ask them:“What specifically would you be doing?”Encourage workers to think about the actual tasks such as working on a fragile roof or working on joists.The TOP TEN IDENTIFIED CAUSES OF FATALITIES on construction sites. You should try to elicit these from the workers themselves through discussion:Working at heights – ladders/tower/mobile scaffoldWorking on fragile roofs/pre-weakened structuresFalls through internal voidsOverturn of plant/falls from vehiclesTurning off before getting offTube/fitting/system scaffoldMachine liftingOverhead power linesFume poisoningExcavationsTHE NEXT SLIDE CONTAINS THE LIST SO THE WORKERS CAN SEE IF THERE IS ANY THEY HAVE MISSED DURING THE DISCUSSION.
4Top 10 Identified Causes of Fatalities Top 10 Identified Causes of Fatalities - Fall from a ladder- - Fall through a fragile roof covering - During lifting operations - Being struck by moving plant - Falls from scaffolds - Fall down an internal void - Asphyxiation by fumes - Crushed by falling excavation - Trapped and crushed by MEWPFacilitator Notes: Hopefully you will have got the group to identify all ten causes in which case this slide will help you confirm what they have said. If not, you can use it to see if there are any surprises for them. You should not spend very much time on this slide as it may lead you into a discussion which will make the running of the next exercise difficult.Facilitator Action:“I am going to ask you a couple of questions about one of these so choose one.”Move onto the next slide
5Exercise What are the behaviours or actions that would have happened just before this fatality occurred? 2. Why might this have happened? (Think about the management, policy, procedure, worker and team).Facilitator Notes: You are going to take the group through each of the questions in turn. Step 3 of the Toolkit provides animated sequences which illustrate causation for each of the top ten safety risks. You might wish to prepare for this session by printing off the final checklist for each of these risks.You might have to explain what you mean by behaviours and actions so the example below will help get you started.Facilitator Action:Take suggestions from the group and write these on a flip chart separating out the two questions:Immediate behaviours and actions Why this occurred- Ladders not secured/not used with three A suitable and sufficient risk assessment has not been carried out/acted upon.stable points of contact, platform, nets or form Scaffolders not monitored erecting/dismantling scaffold, not using scaffolding correctly.- Of fall arrest not erected, tower/mobile scaffold notdismantled in a safe way.Once you have done one example as a group separate workers into smaller groups to look at a different fatality and complete a table similar to one above. Allow 10 minutes before taking feedback from all groups.Once you have taken feedback refer to the chart of the identified immediate and underlying behaviours for the top ten causes of fatalities. It is recommended you discuss these with your workers (see the final slide).Compare and contrast the results from your group work with the checklists produced for each fatal accident risk as part of Step 3 of the toolkit.“You choose xxxxx fatality to look at so
6Exercise 3What could you, as a front line operative, do differently to avoid that fatality from occurring?What do you think management and the organisation could have in place, or do differently, to prevent that fatality occurring?Facilitator Notes: you will need the slide or flip chart with the top ten fatalities visible as well as the chart with the immediate and underlying behaviours and ask the group the questions above:PLEASE NOTE YOU MAY FEEL IT IS MORE APPROPRIATE TO HAVE AN EXTERNAL FACILITATOR RUNNING THIS SESSION TO ENCOURAGE THE GROUP TO BE MORE OPEN AND HONEST.Facilitator Action:Ask the group the questions above and take suggestions from the group and write these on a second flip chart separating out the two questions.Once you have produced a list of improvements put the two flip charts side by side. Examine them and encourage the group to see that many of the behaviours that contribute to the fatality occurring are minor (e.g. answering the phone whilst driving could have led to an overturned lorry).Ensure the group understand that small behaviours can lead very quickly to large scale accidents and fatalities.Next, look at the improvements noted on the second flip chart and identify that many of the improved worker behaviours are easily put in place (e.g. when your phone rings, find a safe place to stop and turn off the engine before answering it).IF YOU ARE NOT ABLE TO GO ONTO THE NEXT SESSION YOU MUST MAKE SURE YOU LEAVE THE GROUP WITH A TASK TO DO BEFORE THE NEXT SESSION.THE TASK FOR THIS SESSION IS:“Until the next session think about the top ten causes of fatalities and whilst you go about your work think about the things you, your supervisor or [company name] has done to prevent them happening to you or your workmates.”
7Session 2 Objective To identify common risk scenarios. Facilitator Notes: This session is to get the group to think about behaviours and consequences.You will need to be comfortable with the ABC analysis (in Step 2 of this toolkit) to explain it to the group.ABC analysis is a tool for investigating factors that contribute to safe or unsafe behaviour. It can also be used to identify the consequences of that behaviour that either (a) increase the likelihood of it occurring again, or (b) decrease the likelihood of it occurring. This will then help you to minimise or remove the things that lead to unsafe behaviour, and minimise or remove those that encourage unsafe behaviour. Or, you can use it to widely promote safe behaviours.IF YOU ARE NOT ABLE TO RUN THIS TRAINING PACK IN ONE SESSION YOU MUST REMEMBER TO GET THE GROUP TO THINK BACK TO THE TASK YOU ASKED THEM LAST TIME:“Before the next session think about the top ten causes of fatalities and whilst you go about your work think about the things you, your manager or [company name] has done to prevent them happening to you or your workmates.”Do not spend more than a couple of minutes on this but just ask them for one thing that they have done/changed to prevent those fatalities from happening on site.
8Using our ABCWhen we want to investigate the things that lead to safe or unsafe behaviour we sometimes use ‘ABC analysis’.It helps us look at those behaviours and work out whether they are likely to happen again.We can use this information to reduce or remove the things that will lead to unsafe behaviour and reduce or remove the things that keep making people behave unsafely.We can also use this information to do more of the things that help people work more safely and to encourage them to keep on doing these.Okay, so let’s break the ABC down a bit more!Facilitators Action“ We are going to look at the ABC analysis. No not the one you learn at school! ABC helps us to investigate what causes safe or unsafe behaviour and what the consequences might be.”The ABC are the steps you take to figure out what is going on, so let’s see what ABC stands for…(next slide)
9ABC Activators Behaviours Consequences Facilitator Notes: In the next slide you are going to show the group an example of the ABC Chart so just briefly go through what the ABC stands for.Facilitators ActionActivators are the things that contribute to risky behaviour.Behaviours are the risk taking or protective behaviour – the things we do.Consequences are the things/events that happen as a result of the behaviour.
10Example of ABC Chart:Activators(A) (What factors lead to risky behaviour?)Behaviours(B)(Risk taking or protective behaviours).Consequences (C)(What factors or events happen as a result of the behaviour?)Fellow workers do not wear hearing protection.Knowledge that hearing protection is supplied.Not wearing hearing protection.Wearing the right PPE for the task.Take risks like your workmates.Risk of damaging hearing.Facilitators Action:“Okay, this is an example of an ABC chart. The Activators are the factors that contribute to risky behaviour. Here we’ve got workers not wearing hearing protection which is unsafe behaviour and a safe behaviour is the knowledge that there is hearing protection you can use.B is for Behaviour. That is the the behaviour someone takes. It can be something someone does to keep them safe or it could be risky behaviour. In this example we have a risky behaviour because someone decides not to do something. In this case it is wearing hearing protection. But, the alternative is the safe behaviour of wearing the right PPE for the task.C is for Consequences – You ask yourself if I act safely or if I take risks what will happen next? What might happen sometime in the future? Think about this example if you have a trainee straight out of college placed with a group of workers who do not bother wearing their PPE what do you think will happen? Yes, most likely you do what everyone else does so as a consequence of your behaviour it might not just affect your life or your health it could affect someone else.”
11Think about the situations where you’ve had an accident or where you escaped a serious incident. Facilitator Notes: The next slide has the five examples of poor safety behaviours, so make sure you do not click onto it until you have got them to brainstorm this questionFacilitator Action: Spend 5 minutes getting the group to think about other times they narrowly escaped having an accident and times when they were not so lucky and the accident happened to them. What were the situations where they put themselves at risk? They can brainstorm these. Encourage them to be honest so that everyone can learn from these (they need to believe that you will not punish them – this is where having an external/independent trainer can be of help).
12Five examples of poor safety behaviours: Not wearing RPE/face mask when kerb cutting (using vibratory machinery) or block cutting. Silicosis risk.Using gas heaters/generators in enclosed spaces without adequate ventilation.Plant drive walking in front of an excavator while the plant was moving.Storing paving slabs off site that then kills a young child clambering over the slabs.Raising a tipper lorry without checking for overhead power lines.Facilitator Notes:Ask them if they have seen any of these examples of poor safety behaviours taking place?Use either these five examples or the ones that your workers came up with and choose one behaviour. Go through the following questions. Discuss each in turn and note down their answers on flip chart paper.Why did this behaviour occur? (Think about knowledge, skills, procedures, environment, pressures, and changes to work space).Was there anything that stopped you behaving safely? (Think about knowledge, skills, procedures, environment, pressures, and changes to work space).What could have happened as a result?What could be done differently in the future? (Think about the barriers, worker and manager behaviour, policy and procedures).How could you overcome the barriers identified?Think about a newer, safer course of action that could be taken. What would then happen as a result?
13Things to Remember!There are a variety of consequences to poor safety behaviour. Some take longer to show themselves (e.g. occupational asthma, poor hearing).This is not just about getting killed. You could be left with a disability or poor health.Prevention is straightforward.Everyone is responsible for the health, safety and welfare of workers in this company; this includes you, your workmates, supervisor and manager.Facilitator Notes:You may find it helpful to read the STOP information sheet in Step 6 of this toolkit.Facilitators Action:Remind workers that if something you are doing is unsafe, STOP what you are doing and report it. If you see someone else doing something unsafe, tell them, or someone in charge.
14SLAM STOP! Take Control …and if it is not safe… Facilitators Action Remind workers of the Situational Awareness SLAM technique (in Step 6 of this toolkit) i.e. to take control of their work by stopping if in danger.IF YOU ARE RUNNING THIS SESSION AS A STANDALONE YOU NEED TO GIVE THE GROUP A TASK TO GO AWAY AND THINK ABOUT BEFORE THE NEXT SESSION.IN THIS SESSION YOU HAVE BEEN DISCUSSING BEHAVIOURS, ACTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES.“Before the next session think about the consequences of what you are doing. Remember SLAM and if it is not safe STOP!”
15Session 3 Objectives: To think about the consequences of engaging in poor safety behaviours.To understand that even when things appearto be right not everything will have beenanticipated, meaning that accidents canhappen.Facilitators Notes: This session follows on from Session 2 and encourages workers to think about the consequences of not behaving safely.IF YOU ARE NOT ABLE TO RUN THIS TRAINING PACK IN ONE SESSION YOU MUST REMEMBER TO GET THE GROUP TO THINK BACK TO THE TASK YOU ASKED THEM LAST TIME:“Before the next session think about the consequences of what you are doing. Remember SLAM and if it is not safe STOP!”Do not spend more than a couple of minutes on this but just ask them:“You don’t need to name names, but since the last session have you seen anything that made you stop and think to do things more safely?”If the workers have seen the Jennifer Deeney video you may wish to remind them that the reason why Kieron died was because he did not know that although a workmate had covered over the lift shaft, the wood only just covered the hole, so when Kieron walked over it the material could not hold his weight. He would have thought that his workmates could have been trusted to stop if they hadn’t got the proper materials and so assumed it was safe.
16“There’s Bob not wearing hearing protection again.” What happens next?Facilitators Notes: The next five slides will present the group with a series of scenarios which gets them to brainstorm all possible consequences.Facilitators ActionsAn operative is not using ear protection whilst using a pneumatic drill. Someone thinks “There’s Bob not wearing hearing protection again.”What happens next? What happens in 5 years time? What happens 20 years on?
17Scenario 2“I need to paint at the top there. I can’t reach! I know… I’ll get a ladder…that should help.”Facilitator ActionWorker on a scaffold wants to paint a gable end (read the thought bubble). He goes to get a ladder rather than a scaffold as he should be doing)What happens next?
18Scenario 3Someone repairing a leaking roof light on a fragile roof using a Youngman’s board (60c, wide board, lightweight 1.5-2m board)…What happens next?Facilitator Actions:Someone is repairing a leaking roof light on a fragile roof using a Youngman’s board. What happens next?NB: Guidance says this work requires double rails.
19Someone is about to go down a 2 metre excavation next to this JCB in operation… What happens next?Facilitators Actions:Someone is about to go down a 2 meter excavation next to this JCB, which is in operation.What happens next?[JCB movement either causes the guy to fall in or injures him].
20Session 4ObjectiveLets recap on the discussions that have taken place and remind ourselves of the key messages from the sessions….Facilitators Notes: This session is to recap on what we have discussed in this training / during these sessions.It is recommended that if you have delivered this training in separate sessions, you do this session with session 3 I.e. no break in between sessions 3 and 4.
21Key Messages The simplest of things can cause fatalities. Accidents happen for a variety of reasons.Accidents can happen as a result of something someone else has done earlier.Disability and death can happen in the present as well as in the future.Prevention is straightforward.Everyone has a shared responsibility.There are ways of overcoming barriers.Workers have the right to STOP (SLAM).Facilitors Notes:Go through the key messages and make it clear that although you have been talking mainly about working safely to avoid fatal accidents it is also about avoiding injuries, permanent disabilities and health conditions. Any risks that workers take today will catch them up sooner or later.Depending on the group you may wish to ask them individually, if they were to do one thing differently as a result of what they have done during the workshop(s) what would that be?
22Thank you for taking part Now go put this into practice!