Presentation on theme: "Modern Genetics. Considered one of the key research areas of modern medicine and sciences Two main areas of advancement – Medical genetics Reproductive."— Presentation transcript:
Considered one of the key research areas of modern medicine and sciences Two main areas of advancement – Medical genetics Reproductive technologies – Biotechnology Genetically altering living organisms (plants, bacteria, etc…) to create specific products for industries such as agriculture and medicine.
Reproductive Technologies Agriculture: to breed desirable livestock Zoology: to maintain species at risk Assisted Reproduction – In vitro fertilization (IVF) – Artificial insemination
Reproductive Technologies Genetic Testing and Screening – Pre-conception screening Recessive genetic disorders done if you have a family history – Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, Sickle Cell Anemia – Pre-natal Screening Checks for genetic abnormalities – Downs Syndrome
Reproductive Technologies Testing most often done using a karyotype – Chromosomes arranged and numbered by size, from largest to smallest. Helps identify aneuploidy – abnormal chromosome number
Reproductive Technologies - Aneuploidy Trisomic/Trisomy – having 3 chromosomes 2n+1 – Down’s syndrome caused by trisomy in chromosome 21 Monosomic – having 1 chromosome 2n-1 Polyploidy – having move than 2 sets of chromosomes Triploidy - (3n) Tetraploidy - (4n) common in plants
Biotechnology Recombinant DNA Technology – Recombining DNA from two or more organisms – DNA from one organism is inserted into another – Used to make insulin Human insulin genes are inserted into bacterial DNA Bacteria produce insulin – Works better than artificial insulin or insulin from other animals
Biotechnology: GMO or GE? Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) – DNA altered through any method, including conventional breeding Farmers have been creating GMO’s for hundreds of years! Genetically Engineered (GE) – DNA modified using techniques that permit the direct transfer or removal of genes in that organism. Such techniques are also called recombinant DNA or rDNA techniques
Biotechnology: Canola 1973 – University of Manitoba Genus: Brassica Selective breeding generated a new species rapeseed. – GMO not GE! – New species had low level of saturated fat, high levels of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) – Omega-3 fatty acid (Required by our body, but we cannot make it) Now canola is also GE – Resistant to herbicides that kill most plants. Genes from bacteria and other plants are inserted into the Brassica genes.
Biotechnology Other GMO foods Tomatoes – pest resistance Corn – Drought and pathogen resistance BreakFree Eggs – enhanced omega 3 fatty acids – Positives: Decreases chemical use and tractor traffic Higher yields allow more production – Negatives: Allows industry to corner the market.. They make the plant resistant to their herbicide, and force producers to purchase their product. Concerns that weeds and insects will evolve to be resistant to stronger chemicals
Bioethics The combination of the studies of biology and ethics Considers a full range of concerns – private decisions made in clinical settings – controversies surrounding stem cell research – implications of reproductive technologies – GMO and GE products in agriculture – international human subject research Just because we can … should we?