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The Brain.

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Presentation on theme: "The Brain."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Brain

2 The Brain The largest and most complex organ of the nervous system
Oversees many aspects of physiology such as Sensation and perception Movement Thinking

3 meninges Thin membrane located between the bone and brain/spinal cord

4 meninges 3 layers Dura mater Arachnoid mater Pia mater

5 Dura mater Outermost layer
Tough, white connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves Continues into vertebral canal as it surrounds the spinal cord

6 Arachnoid mater Middle layer
Thin, weblike membrane that does not have blood vessels Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) located between arachnoid mater and pia mater

7 Pia mater Innermost layer Many blood vessels
Attached to surface of brain

8 parts of the brain Cerebrum Diencephelon Cerebellum Brainstem

9 cerebrum Largest part of brain Divided into 2 hemispheres
A broad flat bundle of axons connects them, called the corpus callosum A layer of the dura mater separates the hemispheres

10 cerebrum The ridges are called gyri The grooves are called sulci
Deep sulci are called fissures Outer layer of cerebrum is gray matter called the cerebral cortex Inner layer of cerebrum is white matter

11 Lobes of cerebrum Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe

12 Frontal lobe Higher intellectual processes for concentrating, planning, complex problem solving, and judging consequences of behavior Movements of voluntary skeletal muscles

13 Parietal lobe Sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, and pain
Understanding speech and using words to express thoughts and feelings

14 Temporal lobe Hearing Interpret sensory experiences and remember visual scenes, music, and other complex sensory patterns

15 Occipital lobe Vision Combine visual images with other sensory experiences

16 diencephalon Region of the brain that gives rise to posterior forebrain structures Associated with the Limbic System – controls emotion Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Pineal gland Amygdala Hippocampus

17 thalamus Relay sensory and motor information to cerebral cortex
Regulates consciousness, sleep and alertness

18 hypothalamus Link between nervous system and endocrine system
Releases hormones that eventually control body temperature, hunger, parenting behaviors, thirst, sleep, and circadian rhythms

19 Pituitary gland Endocrine gland stimulated by hypothalamus that secretes hormones that regulate homeostasis

20 Pineal gland Secretes the hormone melatonin, which regulates sleep/wake cycles and mood

21 amygdala Role in memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions

22 hippocampus Involves consolidation of short-term memory into long term memory and spatial navigation

23 cerebellum A large mass of tissue inferior to cerebrum, posterior to brainstem Communicates with other brain structures by means of cerebellar peduncles. Integrates sensory info such as position of body parts, coordinates muscle activities, maintains posture

24 brainstem Connects brain to spinal cord Midbrain Pons
Medulla Oblongata Reticular Formation

25 midbrain Joins spinal cord with higher regions of the brain
Reflex centers that move eyes and head, maintains posture

26 pons A bulge on the underside of the brainstem
Relays impulses between medulla oblongata and cerebrum; regulates breathing

27 Medulla oblongata Enlarged continuation of spinal cord
Cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory control centers, nonvital reflex control centers

28 Reticular formation Network of fibers throughout brain stem
Regulates sleep/wake cycles, filters sensory impulses

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