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Using hegemonic theory to map conceptions of education within the development field in Pakistan.

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Presentation on theme: "Using hegemonic theory to map conceptions of education within the development field in Pakistan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using hegemonic theory to map conceptions of education within the development field in Pakistan

2 Policies and practices Dominant assumptions underpinning practices Spaces for innovative practices that counter dominant assumptions What are dominant understandings? Where are they coming from? Ideas of discourse, power, hegemony and post- development theory How can hegemonic theory better inform us about power dynamics within the field of development? How is this determining how education is conceptualised and approached?

3 How did I get here? The DFID Fellowship The two towers (9/11/01) The return (July - August, 2003) The return again (Dec 2003 - Jan, 2004) And again (February – August, 2004) The permanent hangover (post-SEF) What do I do now? (development field realities) What happened to EE/ESD? Centrality of power and hegemonic relations

4 Environmenta l Education Formal and non-formal Improving health and hygiene Analysing current practice Safe school environment Local needs and relevancy Acquiring basic skills Mobilising community action Radical pedagogy Ideal type of environmental education

5 What are the breadth and depth of hegemonic development and education discourses? Economic growth Modernisation Interventionism Reliance on scientific and technological knowledge

6 The theories Power Discourse Hegemony Field Policy Post-development

7 Post-development takes a critical position by problematising poverty, equating development with Westernization, critiquing modernization and viewing development as a discourse, an imaginary myth (Sachs 1992b; Escobar 1995; Crush 1995; Rahnema and Bawtree 1997; Rist 1999; Pieterse 2001).

8 Critiques of post-development theory Lack of theoretical depth (Brigg 2003). Sprinkling effect of mainly Foucault Tendencies toward essentialism, romanticism, binary contradictions, reinforcements of Eurocentricism and intolerant moral/political righteousness. (Brigg 2003; Lehman 1997; Corbridge 1998)

9 Power relations are embedded within social relations and are exercised through institutional relations that discipline our ways of thinking and acting through self-regulation (Foucault 1977)

10 Discourse: a particular way of talking about and understanding the world, or an aspect of the world (Phillips and Jorgensen 2003) The order of discourse is the specifically discoursal organisational logic of a field Chouliaraki and Fairclough (1999) A field may be defined as a network, or a configuration, of objective relations between positions (Bourdieu 1992)

11 Hegemony shows how power compels us to consent to that which constrains us (Butler 2001: 29). The moment of hegemonic relation is when the peculiarity of a body, community or social movement ceases to be its own peculiarity and transforms itself within the representation of the universality transcending it (Laclau and Mouffe 2001). The two conditions of a hegemonic articulation are the presence of antagonistic forces and the instability of the frontiers which separate them (Laclau and Mouffe 2001)

12 The data Interviews Policies Video Fieldnotes Experiences

13 The methods Discourse analysis Hegemony analysis Critical ethnography Combining different types of data in each data analysis sections Combining aspect of critical discourse analysis with hegemonic theories and field theory

14 Different data analysis chapters, different data, different methods Micro-politics of SEF – hegemonic formations of assumptions of mainstream development and education discourses: participant observations, field notes, interview transcripts, documents The myth of participation – participation as an empty signifier: video transcripts, field notes, interview transcripts, organisation documents, policy texts Education as a floating signifier - struggles of discourses within a logic of difference: interview transcripts, organisation documents, policy texts

15 Essentialisms Intolerance Rigid management hierarchy Reliance on external knowledge Lack of willingness to work from the ground up De-contextualised Imposed problems, and solutions from external sources Traditional pedagogy Language choices Marketing and advocacy unit Non-participatory and ad-hoc decision- making Expenditure choices Agenda-making process Imposed readings Traditional pedagogy Selection of panelists and participants Lack of participation from communities and schools Intertextual referencing of quality from policies Following dominant models of measurement Interventionist Renovation of central office and other expenditure choices Research ignored Priority and expectation shifting Ghost centre Hegemonic practices Hegemonic formations Mainstream development Traditional schooling De-schooling and Post-development discourses De-schooling and Internal learning Learning retreatQuality Assurance Post-development discourses Traditional schooling Mainstream development Hegemonic strength of dominant mainstream development and education assumptions and practices and the inability of post-development discourses to oppose these: The case of the Sindh Education Foundation

16 Manchar Lake

17 Mallah culture

18 Inside a Mallah house

19 SEF Community-Supported School


21 Targeting poorest members of each village Contextualised and qualitative knowledge Organic development Environment-centred and against micro-credit General targeting of the poor De-contextualised and quantitative knowledge Policy-orientated, donor-reliant development Primary emphasis on macro- economic growth Participation as an empty signifier Participatory, Bottom-up development approaches PVDPPRSP Non-participatory, Top-down development approaches

22 Participation in Sankar village, Thar Desert, Pakistan

23 Fuel-efficient stove programme

24 Education efforts

25 Water conservation efforts

26 Education as a floating signifier: Policies and organisations unified through a logic of difference that education is necessary OrganisationLensEducation practices – general summary DFIDGovernanceSupporting the PRSP – education capacity building and resource allocation CIDAPoverty reduction with government and CBOs Supporting small NGOs in health, education, human rights and gender in specific districts USAIDDemocracy and governanceICT, mainstreaming madrassahs, science education, quality education and literacy attainment UNICEFChildrenPhysical infrastructure of schools and health. Also teacher training activities and funding other education/literacy NGOs Maa Haul I-NGO Environment, sustainable development Conservation education, community environmental rehabilitation work Bachay I-NGO Childrens empowermentPolitically oriented non-formal education similar to ActionAids Reflect method. Circles for discussion, problem-solving and literacy facilitation mainly with refugee children Aurtayn N-NGO Female rightsEducating women about their legal rights as well as their reproductive needs, creating awareness on other rights issues Fauqiyat N-NGO Formal educationSchool improvement through ICT integration, health curriculum teacher training, infrastructural improvements Taleemi N-NGO Formal educationReforming government schools through various community-based and private-sector initiatives. Also programmes of non-formal education for child labourers and literacy for women. Adbiyaat L-NGO Womens literacyPhonic-based, critical literacy approaches mainly with women. Facilitated by women who have gone through the same process Basti L-NGO Poverty reductionEnvironmental organic activities, aversion to micro-credit, health initiatives, community participation, learning and education woven throughout, formal education sidelined Siyaasat movement Peasant and landless rightsPolitical awareness and social mobilisation particularly amongst landless workers and fisherfolk

27 Education as a floating signifier: prioritisation of objectives and nodal points across key development and education policies in Pakistan ESR T-YP NEP NPA PRSP HRDQuranSAPCRCPakistan Const. MDGsEFA Islamic education UPE Quality Literacy UPE Adult literacy ECE Quality UPE Adult literacy Madrassahs Quality Universal literacy UPE Vocational/techn. Madrassah Quality Literacy UPE Secondary Quality

28 Nodal points: UPE, quality, literacy and non-formal awareness UPE: policies, donors, SEF and PVDP Quality: policies, donors, ITA and IUCN Literacy: policies, donors, SCUK and Khoj Non-formal awareness: policies, donors, Shirkat Gah and PRM Logic of equivalences (within nodal points) in this study: SCUK, Khoj, Shirkat Gah and PRM

29 Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum school

30 PFF school

31 Baloch Womens Empowerment Literacy Programme Centre

32 Arabian Sea coast – near the WWF Conservation Centre

33 What about EE? EE as an empty signifier (Gaudiano 2005) What are the nodal points within EE? What are the logics of equivalence within EE? Why does this matter? ESD as dominated by assumptions within mainstream development discourses (more than EE) The problem with defining EE/ESD in a different context – missed opportunities on both sides

34 SO what next? Applications of hegemonic theory Strength of hegemonic formations of mainstream assumptions within dominant education and development discourses and social practices Fragility and tenuous spaces for logics of equivalence to retain hegemonic articulations and avoiding the empty signifier Phenomenon of the empty signifier: how to make this into a strength rather than a weakness inherent in movements of resistance Avoiding interventionism? The issue of labelling – clash of the external versus the internal Post-development theory Getting to grips with complexity: Theories of complexity – mapping Tension between policy and donor expectations, organisational expectations and individual preferences Practicing what you preach Critical research Understanding the influence of wider networks more My new job

35 Using hegemonic theory to map conceptions of education within the development field in Pakistan

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