Presentation on theme: "Feminist social theory: overview of key approaches"— Presentation transcript:
1Feminist social theory: overview of key approaches lecture 4
2lecture outline historical overview – first and second wave feminism critique of ‘malestream’ sociologyoverview of (modernist) feminist theoretical perspectives‘cultural turn’ – shift from ‘things to words’postmodern feminismBlack and post-colonial feminismsfinal thoughts
3terminology ‘feminism’ originates from the French term féminisme in 1871 some claim the term ‘feminist’ first used in French medical text-‘feminisation of male body’1872 Alexandre Dumas (French Writer) – pamphlet - adultery‘women with masculine traits’the early usage of the term – associated with ‘gender confusion’ and it is also worth noting that the term ‘feminist’ was not initially used by womenmeaning changed - political position – change and improve the position of women in societyretrospectively applied to recognise earlier attempts by women who were attempting to promote such changes
4‘first wave’ feminism 1880s -1920s pros and cons of ‘wave’ analogy e.g. Mary Wollstonecraft (1792); 1848 Seneca Falls Convention (USA); rise of women’s suffrage movements (UK and USA)‘first wave’ feminism 1880s -1920se.g. associated with ‘equal rights’ – struggle for vote – legislative changes but addressed other issues tooimportant to note that there were splits within the movement in terms of focus and strategypros and cons of ‘wave’ analogy
5‘second wave’ feminism ‘second wave’ feminism 1960s-1970s:- grass-roots activism- women’s liberation movement – radical?consciousness raising groups- ‘personal is political’- ‘sisterhood’moved into the academywomen’s studies (now gender studies - debate)feminism is both theory and activism (praxis) – importance of experience
6feminist critique of ‘malestream sociology’ sociology has a history of conducting research on mene.g. use male only samples – findings derived from studies are unquestioningly generalised and assumed to be equally relevant to women – men taken as norm?issues and experiences of concern to women were at best neglected and at worst considered sociologically irrelevante.g. domestic violence and labourif women incorporated into studies - tended to be quite simply misrepresented and/or represented in a stereotypical mannersex and gender tended to be naively and uncritically tagged on and stirred into research designs – little (if any) appreciation that the theoretical frameworks themselves were part of the problem
7e.g. sociological research on class (Acker 1973) Nuffield Mobility Study (1980)Register General’s Scale ( )based on all male samplewomen classified indirectly – male head of household – women hidden from the figuresJoan Acker – seminal paper – feminist critique of stratification literature
8‘Feminists argue that women’s position within society is not a natural phenomenon, but a social, political and economic product which is reflected and perpetuated by the bias of ‘science’’. (Harding, in May 2001: 19)
9black and post-colonial feminism feminist theoretical perspectives (e.g. Tong 1990; Evans 1995; Jackson & Jones 1998 Zalewski 2000; Abbott et al 2005)attempt to explain women’s subordination in society – different perspectives - ask different questions and come to different conclusions: e.g.liberal feminismradical feminismmarxist feminismpostmodern feminismblack and post-colonial feminism
10liberal feminismequal rights and opportunities – challenge long held beliefs and ideas about women’s (in)abilitiese.g. Wollstonecraft (1792) – ‘the feathered race’humanism; emancipation; meritocracysameness – ability to reasonare human values equated with male values?reform - simply add women – perpetuate malestream bias?explain women’s inequality?
11radical feminism‘feminism in its “purest” form’ (Abbott et al 2005: 33)woman-centred and celebrates the differences between women and menpatriarchy is central - ‘structural domination’ – ‘universal sisterhood’‘the personal is political’ – e.g. family; domestic violence; body politics
12radical feminismseparatist – women only organisations and critique of heterosexualityrediscover and promote knowledge from the experience and standpoint of womenoversimplified understanding of patriarchy?claims to a universal and homogenous sisterhood – problematic?
13Marxist/materialist feminisms particularly influential during 1960s-70sexplain women’s subordinated status in (capitalist) societyfeminists revised Marxist theory – blind to gender - tried to ‘fit women in’ to Marxism – relations of production and relations of reproduction
14Marxist/materialist feminisms - e.g. institution of the nuclear family – property and inheritance (Engels) – flawed thesis?‘women’s work’ in public sphere devalued and poorly paid – ‘reserve army of labour’ – why women?domestic work – not regarded as real work - ‘domestic labour debates’
15Marxist/socialist feminisms (see e.g. Jackson in Jackson & Jones 1998) serve interests of capitalism and men?what about non-capitalist societies?capitalism and/or patriarchy debates – disputes over the location and explanation of women’s subordination?e.g. dual systems theory – e.g. Walby – shift from private to public patriarchy?exclusion/segregationconvergence/polarisationbut what about other factors and inequalities –e.g. globalisation and ethnicity?
16‘cultural turn’ and feminist theory (1) social science perspectives informed and shaped feminist theory but some argue that literary and cultural theoretical perspectives are now more influentialsince the 1980’s witnessed a cultural or linguistic turn:a shift from ‘things to words’(Barrett in Kemp & Squires 1997)for example the focus moved away from materialist issues related to domestic labour, gender inequities in the workplace and domestic violence to issues related to symbolic - language, representation and discourse
17‘cultural turn’ and feminist theory (2) ‘gender is understood to be shaped not just by social structures but by dominant discourses – forms of language that construct what it means to be a man or a woman’(Abbott et al 2005: 358; my emphasis)misrecognise and take as ‘real’ what is actually linguistically constructed? (e.g. Butler)how has this shift impacted on feminist theory?
18impact of ‘cultural turn’? (see e.g. Barrett in Kemp and Squires 1997) Barrett charts a shift to focus on symbolic in explaining gender differences (late 1970s onwards)critique of universalism – not all women the samecritique of rationalism and of the subject – masculine?the gendering of modernity - modern=masculine – is feminism indebted to modernist liberalism?critique of materialism – are we determined by social structure or are meanings and experiences important?
19reminder of postmodernist thinking: ‘anti-everything’? ‘post-modernism is not a clearly defined theory, but a loose body of thought which draws on interconnected ideas around language, knowledge, reason, power, identity and resistance’(Bryson 1999: 36)critical of Enlightenment projectauthoritative and objective status of scientific knowledge – reject ‘view from nowhere’grand or meta-narratives – e.g. Marxisminclude (modernist) feminism too?claims to the truthreject idea of the subjectanti-foundationalcontest and deconstruct stability – favour shifting, fractured, arbitrary nature of meaning and identities
20postmodern feminism (see e.g. Weedon 1997; Zalewski 2000) contest and resist categorisation – what ‘woman’ ought to be - the point is to deconstruct all attempts to fix identity – this in itself is a political actfocus on differences between women not commonalitiesbut what are the political implications for feminism if no basis for a collective identity?
21Black and post-colonialist feminisms critical of ‘white elitism’ – prioritises and represents the experiences of white, middle class, heterosexual, affluent Western womendiversity of women’s experiences – e.g. familyhow does gender intersect with other factors?e.g. class, ethnicity, disabilityshould gender be given primacy over other aspects – hierarchy of oppression?
22Black and post-colonialist feminisms can women oppress other groups of women and/or men?all women have ‘racialised identities’?notion of solidarity as opposed to sisterhood? (hooks 1984)
23mapping feminist theories Material Linguistic/ ‘Cultural Turn’ SymbolicMODERNSIM → POSTMODERNISMSTRUCTURALISM → POSTSTRUCTURALISMCRITICAL THEORY → DECONSTRUCTIONEQUALITY → DIFFERENCE
24final thoughts what about materialist issues and structural factors? things - words – debateopportunity to re-think and transcend dichotomies - modernist/postmodernist? (Roseneil 1995)feminist theory – more theory and less feminism?(Wise and Stanley 2000)feminist theory arose out of personal politics – importance of women’s everyday ‘lived experiences’ is it becoming disconnected from women’s experiences?
25inaccessible and elitist? final thoughtsto what extent is feminist theory politically relevant today and for whom?given the emphasis on diversity and differences between women – how effectively and legitimately can feminists from different cultural, religious, class, ethnic backgrounds etc theorise about ‘other’ women and their experiences?inaccessible and elitist?