Presentation on theme: "1 Modern and Postmodern Tie up some general themes and strands from 1 st year sociology How explain major social changes in Western nations, over past."— Presentation transcript:
1 Modern and Postmodern Tie up some general themes and strands from 1 st year sociology How explain major social changes in Western nations, over past 20, 30, or 50 years? e.g. in work – decline in manufacturing in politics – end of State Socialism, rise of NSMs Social class – greater white- collar workforce, underclass
2 Opening Definitions So: new terms needed – the postmodern? Debates on Modern/Postmodern strong since late 1980s Today – discuss the Modern – Western societies since 18 th /19 th C Tomorrow – the Postmodern.
3 Opening Definitions Modern and Postmodern – meanings are highly contentious Few sociologists agree 1.Modernity & Postmodernity: Specific Eras, Social patterns Modernity - industrial age Postmodernity - post-industrial era
4 Opening Defns 2. Modernism & Postmodernism - Cultural aspect: artistic movements, intellectual understandings of modernity 3. Modernist or Postmodernist: follower of modernism or postmodernism respectively 4. Modernization/Postmodernization Process of becoming modern or postmodern respectively
5 Modernity Some argue modernity begins in 15 th C Others highlight 17 th and 18 th C – Age of Reason – go with this. Rise of modern culture and thought A) The Enlightenment Faith in Progress & Reason Improve the world - debate, argument Challenge traditional powers e.g. Church, monarchy Secular ; Revolutionary
6 Modernity B) Scientific Advances – apply universally – strongest in natural sciences Technology transforms nature for human benefit e.g. steam engines, railways, cars, planes Social Science plans the same Knowledge – clarifies how to create better world e.g. Apply sociology as social policy
7 Modernity – 19 th – 21 st Cs C) Industrialization D) Complex Division of Labour Fordism: assembly lines, tasks repeated endlessly, extra models made just in case of extra sale E) Urbanization: rural areas depopulate
8 Modern World F) Social Stratification: quite fixed, tied to production process Class structure Gender - women (home/private) & men (work/public) separate spheres Race – imperialism – divides ethnicities G) Bipolarity (Marx): labour v. capital left v. right USSR/Comm v. USA/Cap
9 Modern World H) Nation-building: national identity, via nationalism, education, mass media, etc. I) Bureaucratization: complex, ever-present, in both State and industry All powerful – Weber
10 Modern Culture J) Division between: High culture - intellect (bourgeois) Low culture - body (lower class) Modernism – Modern Arts: Critical, constantly changing Challenging assumptions New styles and forms Critical reflection on modern life (Lash, Smart, Turner)
11 Themes of Modernity Late Modernity - Habermas: modernity about progress, critical rationality. Can produce a true democratic society (emphasis on A) Beck – Second Modernity Reflexive Modernization – more critical awareness, looser social ties, rapid changes, uncertain future Giddens – reflexive modernity; like a juggernaut; radical aspect, transform social life
12 Sum Up Modernity and modernization – long-term processes Linked to: - power of critical reason, science - industry - modern class structure, nations - bureaucracies - high/low culture split - recent theories of late/second modernity – rapid changes, but still modern societies
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