2introduction and reminder … last week – gender and sexualitybecoming gendered and ‘doing gender’?categorise people in societyhow does gender influence employment opportunities and life chances?is work gendered?if so, what are the implications?
3work and home: historical overview industrialisation: public and private spheresdomestic ideology‘ideal family’: ‘breadwinner’ (male) and ‘housewife’ (female) rolesfamily wagewomen and workis housework ‘real’ work?
4separation of work and home pre-industrial society – no separatione.g. cottage industryindustrialisation: separation of work and homeproduction separated from consumption
5social life: public and private spheres paid work, politics, market,arena of male activity(masculine)instrumental: objective and impartialPrivatedomestic life – home and familywoman’s domain(feminine)expressive:emotional and nurturing
6Rosemary Pringle in Abbott et al (2005: 231) ‘Though home and private life may be romanticized, they are generally held to represent the ‘feminine’ world of the personal and the emotional, the concrete and the particular, of the domestic and the sexual. The public world of work sets itself up as the opposite of all these things: it is rational, abstract, ordered, concerned with general principles, and of course , masculine … For men, home and work are both opposite and complementary … [For women] home is not a respite from work but another workplace. For some women work is actually a respite from home!’
7implications and justifications? economic life reorganised – emergence of waged labourreordering of gender relations, roles and expectationslegal, moral, medical discourses legitimate changes?
8domestic ideologyinitially bourgeoisie – emerging middle class in Victorian societyhome – woman’s ‘natural’ spherewomen and mothers – moral guardians‘protective’ work legislationeffect women from different classes in different ways
9‘ideal family’ working class – embrace ‘cult of domesticity’ non-working wife becomes the ideal‘cereal packet family’ – nuclear family – normsexual division of labour: ‘breadwinner’ and ‘housewife’
10‘family wage’: breadwinner role mid 19C – male working class via trade union movement –‘family wage’created ‘breadwinner role’exclude women from male ‘skilled’ jobs: inequality?women financially dependant – power?
11women and work (1) working women threat? gendered occupational segregation:- horizontal – men’s jobs & women’s jobs- vertical – ‘glass ceiling’confined to lower-status and lower paid jobsconcentrated in jobs women were ‘naturally’ skilled at
12women and work (2) reserve army of labour? e.g. during First and Second World Wars- return to main domestic role: housewife
13domestic labour: is it ‘real’ work? if employed in public domain – paidhomework?private sphere: ‘women’s work’, unpaid and ‘hidden labour’‘natural’ aptitude – mothering and domestic tasks
14‘The sociology of housework’ (1) Ann Oakley bias:– male work patterns – norm?1974 – first published study about housework – classic studyinterviewed 40 women – Londonhousewife’s average working week in 1971 – 77 hours!separated housework and childcare
15‘The sociology of housework’ (2) Ann Oakley ‘marriage and the division of labour’ (reading for this week!)questioned claims of increasing equality; class differences; beliefs and attitudesfeminists: housework is real work
16housework: differs from waged work? gendered labour – carried out mainly by womenclosely linked with personal intimate tiesno fixed job description, no agreed hours or conditions of workboundaries unclear –end?
17division of labour technical social sexual – divide job into specialised tasks- skill and power hierarchy – not all tasks equally valuedsocial– different jobs done by different social groups-primary labour market (full-time – good working conditions)-secondary labour market –(part-time – poor conditions)sexualhorizontal – e.g. men’s jobs & women’s jobsvertical – e.g. ‘glass ceiling’
18summary (1)historical overview: industrialisation – separation of work and homepublic domain (masculine) and private domain (feminine)gendered roles: ’breadwinner’ (male) and ‘housewife’ (female)housework: real work (Oakley 1974)
19summary (2) labour is gendered – varies and changes division of labour: technical, social, sexualsexual division of labour - socially constructed not based on natural/biological differences‘jobs become identified as men’s or women’s work; then it is argued that men and women do these jobs because of natural biological differences’(Oakley in Abbott et al 2005: 232)
20tomorrow’s lecture: …but that was then – how relevant is all this now?legacy of domestic/familial ideology?consider some current statistics related to work patterns for men and womenmen do ‘women’s work’ and vice versa: experiences?is ‘women’s work’ ever done?: double day/second shiftconsider Sylvia Walby’ s work (offers a feminist explanation) she claims there has been a shift from ‘private patriarchy’ to ‘public patriarchy’