2STRUCTURE OF THE CHAPTER Critical theory and critical educational researchCriticisms of approaches from critical theoryCritical theory and curriculum researchParticipatory research and critical theoryFeminist researchPost-colonial theory and queer theory
3PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH CRITICAL THEORETICALA deliberately political reading of education and researchIDEOLOGY CRITIQUEFEMINISTPARTICIPATORY RESEARCHPOLITICAL RESEARCHCRITICAL ETHNOGRAPHYPARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCHPOST-COLONIAL THEORYQUEER THEORY
4CRITICAL APPROACHES (MACRO AND MICRO) EQUALITYPOWERINTERESTSFREEDOMNORMATIVESOCIAL JUSTICEEMANCIPATION
6IDEOLOGY CRITIQUE DESCRIBE EXISTING SITUATION UNDERSTAND REASONS FOR EXISTING SITUATIONINTERROGATE LEGITIMACY OF REASONSFOR/CAUSES OF EXISTING SITUATIONSET AN AGENDA TO IMPROVE THEEXISTING SITUATION
7PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH (Bottom-up research) Groups (e.g. community groups) themselves establish/implement interventions to bring about change, development and improvement to their lives, acting collectively rather than individually.Research with people and communities rather than doing research to or for people and communities.Ordinary people are entirely capable of reflective and critical analysis of their situation.Research with a practical intent, for transforming lives and communities, making the practical more political and the political more practical.
8FEMINIST RESEARCH The asymmetry of gender relations and representation must be studied reflexively;Women’s issues, their history, biography andbiology, feature as a substantive agenda/focus in research;Raising of consciousness of oppression,exploitation, empowerment, equality, voice andrepresentation;Challenge the acceptability and notion ofobjectivity and objective research;Substantive, value-laden dimensions and purposes of feminist research are paramount;Research must empower women;
9FEMINIST RESEARCHResearch need not only be undertaken by academic experts;Women must collectivize their own individual histories if they are to appropriate these histories for emancipation;Commitment to revealing core processes andrecurring features of women’s oppression;Insistence on the inseparability of theory and practice;Insistence on the connections between the privateand the public, between the domestic and the political;Concern with the construction and reproduction ofgender and sexual difference;Rejection of narrow disciplinary boundaries;
10FEMINIST RESEARCHRejection of the artificial subject/researcher dualism;Rejection of positivism and objectivity as male mythology;Increased use of qualitative, introspective biographical research techniques;Recognition of the gendered nature of social research and the development of anti-sexist research strategies;The research process as consciousness and awareness raising and as fundamentally participatory;Primacy of women’s personal subjective experience;Rejection of hierarchies in social research;
11FEMINIST RESEARCHThe vertical, hierarchical relationships of researchers/research community and research objects, in which the research itself is an instrument of domination and the reproduction and legitimation of power elites, must be replaced by research that promotes the interests of dominated, oppressed, exploited groups;Recognition of equal status and reciprocal relationships between subjects and researchers;Need to change the status quo, not just to understand or interpret it;Research as a process of conscientization, to empower oppressed participants.
12POST-COLONIAL THEORYAfter-effects, or continuation, of ideologies and discourses of imperialism, domination and repression, value systems (e.g. the domination of western values and the delegitimization of non-Western values);After-effects of colonialism on the daily lived experiences of participants;Regard in which peoples in post-colonial societies are held;Valorization of multiple voices and heterogeneity in post-colonial societies;Resistance to marginalization of groups within post- colonial societies;Construction of identities in a post-colonial world.
13QUEER THEORYQueer theory explores the social construction and privileging or denial of identities, sexual behaviour, deviant behaviour and the categorizations and ideologies involved in such constructions.Halperin (1997: 62): Queer theory ‘acquires its meaning from its oppositional relation to the norm. Queer is by definition whatever is at odds with the normal, the legitimate, the dominant’.Queer theory explores, problematizes,interrogates gender, sexuality and also their mediation by other characteristics or forms of oppression, e.g. social class, ethnicity, colour, disability.