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Social Structure and Social Interaction Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Structure and Social Interaction Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Structure and Social Interaction Chapter 5

2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-2 The Levels of Sociological Analysis Macrosociology Focus on the broad features of society Microsociology Focus on social interaction between people Postmodernism: A recent example of Microsociology and Macrosociology

3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-3 Macrosociology Social Structure Establishes limits on behaviour Patterns of behaviour Key relationships between people

4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-4 Social Institutions The organized means that each society develops to meet its basic needs The social significance of social institutions

5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-5 Social Institutions Family Religion Law Politics Economics Education Science Medicine Military Mass media (emerging institution )

6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-6 Social Institutions in Industrialized Societies

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-7 Functionalist Perspectives Social institutions exist because they perform vital functions for society Replacing Members Socializing New Members Producing and Distributing Goods and Services Preserving Order Providing a Sense of Purpose

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-8 Feminist Perspectives Liberal: gendered inequalities Marxist and radical: patriarchy and social class Multiracial: ethnicity and race

9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-9 Conflict Perspective Institutions are influenced (both directly and indirectly) by influential minority Institutions serve functions, but also act to maintain privilege of elite

10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-10 Mass Media in the Information Age Functionalist perspective: controlled by varied interests Conflict perspective: controlled by the political elite Radical feminists, postmodernists, and queer theorists: what is seen both shapes the audience’s perceptions and is shaped by the audience’s perceptions

11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-11 Globalization & Changes in Social Structure Classes Relationships among ethnic groups State institutions for taxation

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-12 What Holds Society Together? Social Cohesion--the degree to which members of a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity Performing similar tasks develops a shared consciousness Organic Solidarity Shared consciousness as a result of the division of labour

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-13 What Holds Society Together? Ferdinand Tönnies ( ) Gemeinschaft (Guh-MINE-shoft) Traditional communities, in which everyone knows everyone else Gesellschaft (Guh-ZELL-shoft) Emphasis on short-term relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interests.

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-14 Culture Language Beliefs Values Behaviours Gestures

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-15 Social Status Status: the position a person occupies Status Set: all the statuses or positions a person occupies Ascribed Status Status that is involuntary (e.g., race) Achieved Status Status that is voluntary and, possibly, earned (e.g., scholar)

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-16 Social Status (cont.) Status Symbols Signs that identify status (e.g., wedding rings announce marital status) Master Status Status that transcends all other statuses (e.g., female or male) Status Inconsistency Status that is inconsistent with other status (e.g., 14-year-old university student)

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-17 Roles The behaviours, obligations, and privileges attached to a status Each status carries expectations

18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-18 Social Groups and Societies Social Groups Members of a group who have something in common, and for whom these qualities are thought significant

19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-19 Groups in Society Aggregate Individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as necessarily belonging together Category People who have similar characteristics (e.g., all university women who wear glasses)

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-20 Groups in Society Primary Groups Secondary Groups In-Groups and Out-Groups Reference Groups Social Networks Electronic Communities

21 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-21 Group Dynamics How groups affect us, and how we affect groups

22 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-22 Group Size Dyad Two people Unique features Triad Three people Unique features

23 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-23 The Incremental Effects of Group Size on Relationships

24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-24 Leadership Leader A person who influences the behaviours, opinions, or attitudes of others Types of Leadership Instrumental Leader Expressive Leader

25 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-25 Conformity to Peer Pressure The Asch Experiment (Solomon Asch) The Milgram Experiment (Stanley Milgram)

26 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-26 Asch’s Cards

27 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-27 Groupthink & Decision-Making Asch and Milgram Experiments: Implications Irving Janis & Groupthink Alternatives interpreted as disloyal, signs of uncooperativeness Preventing Groupthink

28 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-28 Microsociological Perspective Focus on face-to-face interaction Symbolic Interaction Stereotypes Self-fulfilling

29 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-29 Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes

30 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-30 Symbolic Interaction Personal Space Intimate Distance Personal Distance Social Distance Public Distance Touching

31 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-31 Dramaturgy: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Erving Goffman ( ) Social life as a drama or “the stage” “Front Stages” “Back Stages”

32 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-32 Roles Role Performance The particular emphasis or interpretation that an individual gives a role Impression Management Communicate using “sign-vehicles” Social Setting Appearance Manner

33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-33 Roles (cont.) Teamwork A coordinated performance between two or more people Face-Saving Behaviour “studied nonobservance”

34 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-34 Postmodernism Challenges the manner in which we see and interpret the language and images of contemporary society Social fragmentation causes instability in the meaning of the social life. Language games and role playing

35 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-35 Social Construction of Reality Our behaviour depends on how we define reality – our “definition of the situation” e.g., gynecological examinations Thomas Theorem “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.”


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