2Mind Control: Dual Processes Wegner (1994)mental control and its ironies flow from the operation of a simple mechanism: the interplay of an intentional operating process and an ironic monitoring process.CyberneticsWiener (1948) noted that it takes 2 processes to control anything at all.
4Dynamics of Controlcontrol involves changing something to a certain criterion, thus processes are needed to provide both the change and the assessment of success in reaching the criterion.Miller, Galanter, & Pribram (1960) - TOTEgoal-directed behavior is the result of 2 processes: the operate and test mechanisms in a test-operate-test- exit (TOTE) unit - mind as a thermostat!
5Wegner’s Theory of Mental Control the two processes underlying mental control are cognitive search processes that increase the accessibility of stimuli. Each process is an attentional process that orients the system toward a particular set of inputs.the 2 processes differ with respect to their:(a) target search, (b) degree of consciousness(c) attentional demands, (d) conditions of activation
6Operating Process search target the desire for a mental state creates an operating process that seeks items consistent with that state (e.g., concentration). The desire to avoid a mental state (e.g., suppression) creates an operating process that seeks items inconsistent with that state. Thus, the operator looks for distractors in an attempt to provide mental control.
7consciousnessthe operating process is present in consciousness. It is the ‘subjective’ feeling of doing in mental life.
8effortfulnessthe operating process is an effortful (i.e., controlled) mental process (i.e, it demands attentional resources - Bargh, 1989; Hasher & Zacks, 1979; Posner & Snyder, 1975; Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977). As an effortful mental activity, it is vulnerable to competing task demands.
9activationThe operating process is activated by the monitoring process. Whenever the monitor is satisfied that a failure of the intentional operation has been found, the operating process is implemented. Thus, the operator is a non-continuous process, it occurs cyclically in response to failure.
10Monitoring Process search target the monitoring process searches for indications of the failure of mental control (i.e., it searches for the unwanted thought, impulse, or memory). Thus, the monitor reviews potentially conscious material. A search attuned for failure is uncomplicated as it needs only to hold a single template against which input can be compared.disabling the monitor (Luria, 1966)frontal lobe dysfunction (Stuss & Benson, 1987)
11consciousnessduring mental control attempts, the monitoring process is usually not reflected in conscious thought.effortfulnessthe monitoring process is less effortful than the operating process, thus it is less likely to be disturbed by concurrent tasks.
12activationthe monitoring process is activated by the initiation of mental control. Once the intention to control the mind is implemented, the monitoring process runs continuously until the intention is relaxed.
13Conditions of Irony intention to control must be present competition for attentional resourcesalcoholstresscognitive loaddual-tasks and mental control
15Task word association task think about or don’t think about house respond with associatehome_______manipulation of cognitive loadtime pressure or no pressureRESULTSunder time pressure, suppressors responded with the forbidden item (i.e., house)
16Rebound and Hyperaccessibility: Wegner et al. (1993) Stroop Tasksuppress or concentrate on housereport color of ink - house kettlemanipulation of cognitive loaddigit rehearsal or control (within subjects)RESULTSon high-load trials, suppressors showed impaired colour naming to target item (hence hyperaccessible)
17Mood Control: Wegner et al. (1993) recall either happy or sad life eventsad event (try not to be sad, no instruction, be sad)happy event (try not to be happy, no instruction, be happy)manipulation of loaddigit rehearsal or control (between subjects)RESULTSmood control produced ironic effects under load (trying not to be sad, made people sad)
19Try to Sleep: Wegner et al. (1993) play cassette when you get into bednarratorsleep as quickly as you cansleep whenever you wantrest of the tape - cognitive loadNew Age music or brass bandtime taken to get to sleep
25Irony Reconsidered routes to rebound distractors become reminders (white bear)attentional depletion (house)construct accessibilityfrequency of primingwhat does the monitor do?priming - another route to rebound?
26Expt 1: Suppress Your Stereotypes Phase 1 - descriptive task - day in the life of a targetsuppress stereotypesno instructionPhase 2 - day in the life of a new group memberMeasure - rated stereotypicality of the passages
29Expt 2: Take a SeatPhase 1 - describe day in the life of a target (skinhead)suppress stereotypesno instructionPhase 2 - next study (meet the skinhead), empty lab, take a seat (7 available)Measure - social distance
34Other Ironic Effects: Suppression is Effortful forming impression of otherscategorical plus individuating materialindividuation is effortful (Fiske & Neuberg, 1990)suppression is effortful (Wegner, 1994)suppressing stereotypeswhich information is remembered
35Form an Impression: Macrae et al. (1996) form impression of skinhead (audiotaped description)suppress stereotypeno instructionstereotypic content - high, low, noneprobe-reaction task (turn off the light)multiple-choice test about target
40Issues: Moderating Influences on Stereotype Suppression perceiver characteristicsprejudice level (Monteith et al. 1997)nature of the stereotype (Monteith et al. 1997)race/gender/sexual orientation vs. skinheadsmotivation (Plant & Devine, 1997)practice (Wegner, 1994)
41Things Worth Knowing Wegner’s (1994) model of mental control. The nature of post-suppression rebound effects.